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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is an anatomical relationship?

Being able to describe the relationships between the organ of choice and other structures in the body

What are the four components of the urinary system?





What are the functions of the urinary system?

Filter blood to produce urine

Remove urine from body

Where in the body are the kidneys located? Where is it in comparison to the vertebral column?

In the posterior abdominal region, immediately lateral to the vertebral column

Which kidney is slightly higher? Why is this so?

Left is higher due to position of the liver pushing the right kidney downwards

What are the 3 regions of the kidney?

Superior Pole

Inferior Pole

Renal Hilum

What are found superiorly to the kidneys?

Suprarenal Glands

What are found anteriorly to the kidneys?

Colic flexures (& pancreas posterior to the left kidney)

What is found posterior to the kidneys?

Diaphragm & musculature

What is found laterally on the left kidney?

What is found inferiorly on the left kidney?

Laterally: spleen

Inferiorly: descending colon & jéjunum

What is found anterior-superior to the right kidney?

What is found medially to the right kidney?

Anterior-superior: liver

Medially: Duodenum

What are the 5 layers of fat/fascia/muscles surround the kidneys?

Perinephric Fat: surrounds kidneys

Renal Fascia: surrounds perinephric fat

Paranephric Fat: posterior to renal fascia

Peritoneum: anteriorly located

Back Musculature: posteriorly located

At what level do the kidneys sit in regards to the vertebrae?

extend from T12 - L3 vertebrae

What is present in the renal hilum?

Renal Vein

Renal Artery


What are the ureters & what's their function?

Tubes of smooth muscle that transport urine to the bladder

What are the 3 constriction points where kidney stones can get caught?

1) Ureteropelvic Junction - exiting kidneys

2) Pelvic Inlet - over common iliac artery

3) Entrence to Bladder - small sphincter

What is the structure of the bladder and function?

Apex: directed towards pubic symphysis

Base: faces postero-inferiorly

Inferolateral Surface: cradled between legator ahi & obturator internus muscles

Neck: intersection of base fixed to pubic bones

Function: storage of urine

What is the muscle found in the base of the bladder?

Trigone Muscle

What transports urine from the bladder to the outside?


What's the difference of the urethra in males & females?


- short (~5cm)

- external opinion anterior to vagina


- long (~20)

- more complex due to prostatic part (contains prostatic sinuses & ejaculatory ducts)

Explain the blood supply & venous drainage of the kidneys.

Renal artery - branches from abdominal aorta

Renal vein - empties into inferior vena cava

Left renal artery is higher & shorter

Right renal artery is lower & longer

Explain the blood supply & venous drainage of the bladder.

Vesical arteries

- superior & inferior

- branch off anterior trunk of iliac artery

Pelvic Plexus

- drains into internal iliac vein

Explain the innervation of the ureters.

Driven by Autonomic Input from Visceral Plexuses in the abdomen

Smooth muscle walls with peristaltic waves generated to move urine into bladder (not gravity driven)

Explain the innervation of the bladder.

Arises from the Hypogastric Visceral Plexus

Very complex neural process