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25 Cards in this Set

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What is an anatomical relationship?

Being able to describe the relationships between the organ of choice and other structures in the body

What are the four components of the urinary system?

Kidneys


Ureters


Bladder


Urethra

What are the functions of the urinary system?

Filter blood to produce urine


Remove urine from body

Where in the body are the kidneys located? Where is it in comparison to the vertebral column?

In the posterior abdominal region, immediately lateral to the vertebral column

Which kidney is slightly higher? Why is this so?

Left is higher due to position of the liver pushing the right kidney downwards

What are the 3 regions of the kidney?

Superior Pole


Inferior Pole


Renal Hilum

What are found superiorly to the kidneys?

Suprarenal Glands

What are found anteriorly to the kidneys?

Colic flexures (& pancreas posterior to the left kidney)

What is found posterior to the kidneys?

Diaphragm & musculature

What is found laterally on the left kidney?


What is found inferiorly on the left kidney?

Laterally: spleen


Inferiorly: descending colon & jéjunum

What is found anterior-superior to the right kidney?


What is found medially to the right kidney?

Anterior-superior: liver


Medially: Duodenum

What are the 5 layers of fat/fascia/muscles surround the kidneys?

Perinephric Fat: surrounds kidneys


Renal Fascia: surrounds perinephric fat


Paranephric Fat: posterior to renal fascia


Peritoneum: anteriorly located


Back Musculature: posteriorly located

At what level do the kidneys sit in regards to the vertebrae?

extend from T12 - L3 vertebrae


What is present in the renal hilum?

Renal Vein


Renal Artery


Ureter

What are the ureters & what's their function?

Tubes of smooth muscle that transport urine to the bladder

What are the 3 constriction points where kidney stones can get caught?

1) Ureteropelvic Junction - exiting kidneys


2) Pelvic Inlet - over common iliac artery


3) Entrence to Bladder - small sphincter

What is the structure of the bladder and function?

Apex: directed towards pubic symphysis


Base: faces postero-inferiorly


Inferolateral Surface: cradled between legator ahi & obturator internus muscles


Neck: intersection of base fixed to pubic bones




Function: storage of urine

What is the muscle found in the base of the bladder?

Trigone Muscle

What transports urine from the bladder to the outside?

Urethra

What's the difference of the urethra in males & females?

Females:


- short (~5cm)


- external opinion anterior to vagina


Males:


- long (~20)


- more complex due to prostatic part (contains prostatic sinuses & ejaculatory ducts)

Explain the blood supply & venous drainage of the kidneys.

Renal artery - branches from abdominal aorta


Renal vein - empties into inferior vena cava




Left renal artery is higher & shorter


Right renal artery is lower & longer

Explain the blood supply & venous drainage of the bladder.

Vesical arteries


- superior & inferior


- branch off anterior trunk of iliac artery




Pelvic Plexus


- drains into internal iliac vein



Explain the innervation of the ureters.

Driven by Autonomic Input from Visceral Plexuses in the abdomen




Smooth muscle walls with peristaltic waves generated to move urine into bladder (not gravity driven)

Explain the innervation of the bladder.

Arises from the Hypogastric Visceral Plexus




Very complex neural process