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52 Cards in this Set

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This was the political idea in which the people regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions and the proper state and society remained those before the French Revolution which rested on a judicious blend on monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners


love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it


an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard


a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole

classical liberalism

The economic and political philosophy that opposed state intervention in economic affairs, supported free trade, competition, and individual initiative as the key to success; this philosophy was, above all, an attack on privilege, on the aristocrats, on the Anglican Church; liberals believed that talent alone should dictate a man's advancement in the world; supported in England by William Gladstone.


a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization


Concern for the capability and uniqueness of the individual personality

Second French Revolution

working class was unhappy with king Louis Philippe and his minister; the king was forced to abdicate

Giuseppe Garibaldi

(1807-82) An Italian radical who emerged as a powerful independent force in Italian politics. He planned to liberate the Two Kingdoms of Sicily.


In 1867 the Hungarian nobility restored the constitution of 1848 and used it to dominate both the Magyar peasantry & the minority population.

Frederick William IV

the Prussian king that said Prussia would aid in German unification

Lord Byron

Was an important British Romantic poet. His works include "She walks in Beauty" and the unfinished "Don Juan." Many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement

Johann Wolfgang von Geothe

German poet and novelist and dramatist who lived in Weimar (1749-1832)

Victor Hugo

French poet and novelist and dramatist

Klemens von Matternich

the era of conservatism was best represented by the leadership and policies of Austrian minister, epitomized conservative reaction, opposed to the ideas of liberals and reformers because of the impact such forces would have on the multinational hapsburg empire

German Confederation

39 states out of the original 300 assembly of conferedration maintained napoleans reorganization,

Concert of Europe

lasted from congress of Vienna to Crimean war, series of arrangements to enforce the status quo as defined by the Vienna settlement, highly conservative in nature

Quadruple Alliance

russia prussia austria and england provided for concerted action agaisnt any threat to peace or balance of power

congress system

members of Quadruple Alliance meeting to discuss common interests and maintain peace, lasted into 19th century


idea that after the Napoleonic wars, peace could best be reestablished in Europe by restoring legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional

principle of intervention

idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments.

Carlsbad Diet, 1819

Issued by Metternich in July 1819 in the German states; it dissolved the Burschenschaften and provided for university inspectors and press censors


A member of a British political party, founded in 1689, that was the opposition party to the Whigs and has been known as the Conservative Party since about 1832

Corn Laws 1815

Regulated the foreign grain trade, but was unnecessary during the war w/ France b/c England couldn't import it. Parliament raised the price of grain to excessive levels.

Peterloo Massacre 1819

pro-liberal crowd listening to anti-corn law rhetoric were attacked by police, press was brought under control and mass meetings were abolished

Decembrist Uprising 1825

When the Moscow regiment refused to swear allegiance to Nicholas, he ordered the cavalry and artillery to attack them. Although a total failure, the revolt came to symbolize the yearnings of all Russian liberals in the nineteenth century for a constitutional government.


British political party that replaced Lord North's Tories in 1782 and made a generous treaty with the United States

David Ricardo "iron law of wages"

Ricardo's concept that if wages increased, childbirth would increase; if child birth increased, then the workforce would increase; if the workforce increased, then wages decreased; if wages decreased, then childbirth would decrease; workforce would decrease, wages would then increase; repeat.

Jeremy Bentham, utilitarianism

The theory associated with Jeremy Bentham that the principle of utility, defined as the greatest good for the greatest amount of people, should be applied to the government, the economy, and the judicial system.

John Stuart Mill "On Liberty"

discusses the role of society, not the individual, in fighting against the social and economic injustices that might emerge from unrestrained industrialism,


A member of a secret political association in Italy, organized in the early part of the nineteenth century for the purpose of changing the government into a republic

Greek Revolution

Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradually dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.

Revolutions of 1830

sparked by a wave of liberalism and nationalism against perceived conservative oppression, Belgium Independence, Italy & Poland failed

Louis Philippe "Bourgeoisie King"

of Orleans family became the new king under a constitutional monarchy known as the bourgeoisie king

Giuseppe Mazzini

A nationalist who tried to unite Italy; he organized a group called, "Young Italy" to help achieve his goal; he was eventually exiled for his revolutionary actions.


The Italian nationalistic movement, with its goal of liberation and unification. Secret societies had to be formed because nationalists could not support their cause openly. This term is the Italian word for "resurgence."

Earl Grey

He was the leader of the Whigs who helped King William IV to form a government.

Reform Act of 1832

doubled the amount of middle class men allowed to vote by lowering how much tax a person had to pay in order to be allowed to vote

Factory Act of 1831

Forbade child labor under age of nine

Anti-Corn Law League

Whig-liberal-radical combo that worked to real the corn law, putting pressure of the tory party

Revolutions of 1848

Revolutions to overthrow the monarchies in Austria and Prussia failed, but in France, the French King was forced to abdicate (Louis Philippe) and Louise Napoleon was elected President of France, under a new French constitution, later that year.

British House of Parliament

1836-1837; The most famous public buildings in the Neo-Gothic style.

Ludwig van Beethoven

German composer known for his classical symphonies; considered one of the greatest composers who continued to compose after he became deaf

Frederic Chopin

Polish polesmoker (pianist); associated with nationalistic themes of Romanticism; often used music to emphasize story lines consistent with Polish national expectations

Louis Blanc

Demanded an end to competition and expanding political power to the working class. The working class would then influence the government and economy to their, and society's, benefit, and by doing so, improve the quality of life.

Robert Owen

Believed that if humans were placed in the correct surroundings, they and their character could be improved; saw no conflict between a human industrial environment and making a profit; led to the unionization of workers.

Poor Law 1834

Benthamite reforms (taking care of the greatest number). Built workhouses where unemployed could go for work and thus receive money. But they were hard dangerous work which discouraged people from going there.

Frankfurt Assembly

liberal nationalist/romantic leaders called for elections to a constituent assembly from all states in the German bund for the purpose of unifying the German states

Louis Kossuth

a revolutionary leader in Hungary who led the Magyars against the Austrians, but was defeated when the Russian forced joined the Austrians

William Wordsworth

a romantic English poet whose work was inspired by the Lake District where he spent most of his life (1770-1850)

Caspar David Friedrich

19th century German Romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement- especially Romantic painting Wanderer above the Sea of Fog

Eugene Delacroix

Artist credited for leading the French Romantic Movement and for his expressive brush strokes and emphasis on color rather than clarity of outline and form.