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43 Cards in this Set

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Which of the plasma proteins help to maintain blood osmotic pressure?

Albumins



Blood contains several types of proteins that serve various functions. Which proteins function as antibodies?

Globulins

The normal white blood cell count is between....

5,000-10,000 cells per cubic millimeter of blood

Which leukocyte functions to help lymphocytes do their job?

Monocytes

The type of leukocytes that are usually the first responders to infections are...

Neutrophils



The leukocytes that typically respond to an allergic reaction and release histamines are....

Basophils



Acute, intense injury leads to a response by which type of leukocyte?

Neutrophils

In the case of a viral infection you would expect to see an increase in which of the leukocytes?

Lymphocytes

Heparin, a substance that inhibits blood clotting, is released by which leukocytes?

Basophils



Which leukocytes defend primarily by immunity vs. phagocytosis?

Lymphocytes

The leukocytes responsible for attacking and killing parasites are...

Eosinophils

The leukocytes that become highly mobile macrophages once they invade tissue are...

Monocytes

99% of the formed elements of blood are which type of blood cells?

Erythrocytes

Which of the following is a role played by erythrocytes?


A. Inhibit blood clotting


B. Cause blood clotting


C. Carry oxygen to tissues


D. Defend against pathogens

C. Carry oxygen to tissues

The effectiveness of oxygen transport to body tissues is determined by the number of transporting cells, and by the amount and presence of a particular molecule that each cell must contain. Which molecules must be present within these cells?

Hemoglobin

Which element is required to form hemoglobin molecules?

Iron

What determines blood type?

The presence or absence of antigens on the cell membrane. The presence or absence of Rh factor on the cell membrane

When type blood...You place two samples on slides and add anti A plasma to one and anti B plasma to the other. Neither samples agglutinate. What blood type?

Type O

Type A blood contains

Antigen A

Persons with which blood type are sometimes called universal donors?

O-

Carol is an active, healthy pregnant woman with excellent nutrition. She taking vitamins and iron supplements daily. You expect optimal expansion of her plasma volume and red cells by how much?

Plasma increase: 40-50%


Red cells increase: 25-33%

Blood path through the heart

From right atrium to right ventricle to lungs to left atrium to left ventricle



The "mitral valve" is a common name for which valve?

The left atrioventricular valve

Which of the following statements regarding arteries is incorrect?


A. Arteries are adapted for high pressure


B. Arteries carry blood towards the heart


C. Arteries contain no valves


D. Arteries are innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers that influence blood pressure and blood flow

Arteries carry blood toward the heart

The vessels returning oxygenated blood to the heart are...

pulmonary arteries

There are several factors that contribute to the return flow of venous blood back to the heart. Which is not a factor?


A. Skeletal muscle contractions that squeeze the veins and open valves so blood can move toward the heart


B. Breathing movements that create a pressure gradient between abdomen and thorax


C. High pressure gradient in veins forcing blood towards the heart


D. Constriction of venous walls during exercise


E. Venous valves

C. High pressure gradient in veins forcing blood towards heart

Oxygen poor blood is pumped from the heart to the lungs via which blood vessels?

Pulmonary arteries

During pregnancy the maternal heart rate increases by about what percentage?

20%



During pregnancy the maternal heart enlarges by about what percentage?

12%

During pregnancy blood pressure , especially the diastolic pressure, decreases slightly during the first two trimesters. What is the cause for the decrease in blood pressure?

Vasodilation and decreased peripheral resistance due to progesterone.

Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?


A. Immunity


B. Maintenance of fluid balance


C. Transport of dietary lipids


D. Transport of oxygen



D. Transport of oxygen

Filtering harmful substances from lymph before returning fluid back to the blood stream is a primary function of the...

lymph nodes



The movement of lymph through lymphatic vessels is caused largely by...

Muscular activity

An organism or agent capable of causing disease or harm to the body is called...

pathogen

A substance that induces an immune response is called an...

antigen

Proteins produced in response to foreign antigens to counteract their effects are known as what?

Antibodies

All of the following are types of innate immune defenses except....


A. Fever


B. T-cell immunity


C. Inflammation response


D. C-reactive protein

B. T-cell response

An example of adaptive immunity is:


A. Formation of antibodies against a virus


B. Developing a fever during an illness


C. Inflammation at the site of an injury


D. Lysozymes that digest pathogens

Formation of antibodies against a virus

The immunoglobulin associated with most permanent immunity is...

IgG

Which immunoglobulin is the first antibody released during an immune response?

IgM

Which antibody is capable of crossing the placenta by 20 weeks gestation to provide immunity to the fetus?

IgG

Which immunoglobulin is not secreted in colostrum and/or breast milk?

IgE

Preconception exposure to antigens on the paternal sperm or seminal fluid may facilitate acceptance of the fetopaternal antigens and protect against....

pre-eclampsia