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54 Cards in this Set

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Living things must...

maintain homeostasis

What are the basic functions of life?

nutrition, excretion, transport, respiration, growth, synthesis, regulation

What makes up an organisms metabolism?

all life processes

What happens if you don't maintain homeostasis?

death and disease

What are autotrophs

make their own food

What are heterotrophs

eat other organisms for energy

What is photosynthesis? What does it use? What does it make?

carried out by plants to make energy




uses carbon dioxide water and sun light




makes glucose, a sugar molecule, for energy and oxygen

Where does photosynthesis occur?

chloroplasts

What are stomates

holes in plant leafs where that let them exchange gases used in photosynthesis

What are guard cells

open and close the stomates




prevent loss of too much water

What is respiration

mechanism by which organisms break sugar bonds to create energy for the cell

What is the energy molecule of an organism

ATP

What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

requires oxygen and yields more ATP than anaerobic which does not require oxygen

What is the product of anaerobic respiration in humans

lactic acid, FEEL the BURN

What are photosynthesis and aerobic respiration?

opposites

What is diffusion

movement of molecules from high conc. to low conc.




passive transport

What is active transport

requires the use of energy, usually a molecule moving from low conc. to high conc.




moves against the flow of diffusion

What is osmosis

diffusion of water into or out of the cell

What happens to the cell shape when water...diffuses into the cell? diffuses out of the cell?

cell swells




cell shrinks

What is regulation

coordination and control of other life functions

What is a stimulus

a change in the env. that you respond too

What is a neuron

a nervel cell

What is an impulse

electical signal carried by nerves

What are neurotransmitters

the molecules that help to carry the electrical impulse between nerve cells

What is a hormone

chemical signal secreted by different glands of the body

What are some examples of hormones

insulin, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, adrenaline etc.

What are receptor molecules

proteins on the surface of the cell membrane that receive signals form the nervous or endocrine system, needed for your cells to communicate and work together

What are the four most common elements

Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen




CHON

What must organic compounds contain

carbon and hydrogen

What are bigger organic or inorganic molecules

organic

What are carbohydrates

sugars and starches

What are all carbs made from

simple sugars

What is an example of a simple sugar

glucose

What are lipids

fat molecules that store energy

What are lipids made of

fatty acids and glycerol

What are some functions of protein

hormones, enzymes, cell structures, receptors, channels

What are proteins made of

amino acids

What determines a proteins function

shape and fit

What are four specific jobs of protein

make enzymes, receptor molecules, antibodies, hormones

What are enzymes and catalyst

the affect the rates of chemical reactions

What is the lock and key model

one type of enzyme fits one type of molecule




if you cahnge the shape of one the other wont fit

What happens to proteins at high temps

proteins lose their shape and no longer work

What is pH

scale that measures the strength of an acid and base




an acidic pH is 0-6.9




neutral is water and is pH 7




basic pH is 7.1-14

What are the basic units of life

cells

What is the cell theory

all living things are made of cells

What are the differences between plant cells and animal cells

plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, animal cells do not




animal cells have centrioles

What are organelles

the behind the scenes workers that allow a cell to live

What is the cell membrane? What is it made of?

barrier that separate the cell from the outside env.




made of proteins and lipids

What does selective permeability mean?

cell membrane only lets certain things in




lets in freely, small molecules like water and oxygen




blocks large molecules like starch or protein which need active transport to come in

What is the cell wall

protective layer around the cell membrane that keeps the cell intact

how are organisms classified

by evolutionaty history with common ancestors grouped together

What are kingdoms

largest group of related organisms (fungi, plants, animals, protists, bacteria)

What is a species

the more specific classification of an organism




they can reproduce within only one species

What are the two parts to an organisms scientific name

genus and species name