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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Vertebral Artery is the first branch of what artery?
The subclavian
How many spinous processes does the atlas have?
None- only anterior and posterior arches, and anterior and posterior tubericles.
Odontoid Process
Found on the axis- also called the dens- articulates with the posterior surface of the anterior arch of C1
Where is the pars interarticularis?
B/w the superior and inferior articular processes of vertebrae.
Intervertebrl foramen is what kind of foramen?
Artificial- stenosis of intervertebral foramen is a comon cuse of pinched nerves.
Supraspinous Ligament
Runs along the most posterior aspect of the spinous processes- also aled the interspinous ligament
Tectorial Membrane
The junction of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament with the base of the skull.
Purpose and location of the cruciate ligament and the alar ligament
keep C1 and C2 in place- very importnt in limitig cervical motion.
Name the synovial plane joints in the spine
Facet joints- or zygapophysial joints
What innervates the facet joints?
posteror rami of spinal nerves.
Nuchal Ligament
Composed of thickened fibroelastic tissue. Extends from the external occipital protuberance to the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae. Provides muscle attachment for C3-5 vertebrae.
Where, in relation to the vertebra, does erniation occur?
herniatin causes nerve impengement on the nerve below the disc.
Batson's Plexus
Provides vascualr pathway between pelvis and brain.
Inferior and superior obliques
Copose 2/3 of suboccipital triangle- allow for lateral rotation of atlas on axis.
major and minor rectus posterior rectus capitis muscles
Compose 1/3 of sub occipital triangle. Allow for extension of the neck and the head.
Which Dorsal ramus does not have a sensory component?
C1- it is the only spinal nerve not to have a Dorsal Root Ganglion.
Suboccipital Triangle
Composed of the Inferior oblique muscle, the superior oblique muscle, and the rectus posterior major muscle. stabilizes the atlas and axis to the occipital bone.
Erector Spinae Muscles
Illiocostalis, Longissimus thoracis, and the Spinalis thoracis
Transversospinalis group
Semispinalis capitis, Semispinalis Cervicis, and the Semispinlis Thoracis
Deepest Back Muscles
Rotatores, Multifidus, Levator costalis
Components of the Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Component of the Peripheral Nervous System
12 prs of crnial nerves
31 prs of spinal nerves
Distribution of spinal nerves
8 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
1 Coccygal
Somatic Nervous System
Controls the body other than the internl organs
Visceral Nervous System
Controls the vital organs
Neuron Structure
Dendrites- take electrochemical signal to cell body
Soma- Cell bod containing the nucleus
Axon- Takes electrochemical impulse away from cell body
Myelin Sheath- Increases conductivity and impulse velocity
Termination of Spinal Cord
Termination of Dural Sac
Relationship of cervical nerves to vertebra
Relationship of all other nerves to vertebra
Collection of neurons outside of the CNS
Ventral Horn of spinal cord
Motor Neurons
Dorsal Horn of spinal cord
sensory neurons
Lateral Horn of spinal cord
found between T1- L2- cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons.
Wht do autonomic motor neurons control?
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands (all involuntary)
Spinal Nerve Portions
Doral Root (Sensory)- Dorsal Root ganglia
Division- into dorsal and venral rami
Ventral ramus- subdivides into sympathetic ganglion via rami communicntes
Sympathetic Ganglion Characteristics
T1-L2- grey and white rami communicntes all others just GREY
Contain synapse
What do ventral rami inervate?
Supply eerything BUT deep back muscles, skin of the back
Form plexuses
Wide Distrbution
Restricted Distribution
All Spinal Nerves have all 4 General Functions
GSE- Skeletal Muscle motor neurons
GVE- Autonomic Nervous Sstem (Takes 2 Neurons)
GVA- Sensations from internal organs (goes through dorsal root ganglion)
GSA- Supplies skin/ligaments
Define Dermatome
Strips of skin supplied by spinal nerves
Plexus Formation
Ventral Rami of multiple spinal nerves combine and then divide.
Any branch of a plexus has multiple spinal nerves.
Dura Mater
Tough Outer coating of Spinal Cord
Arachnoid Mater
Spider web- like membrane located inside of dura mater
Pia Mater
Closely adheres t the spinal cord
Denticulate Ligaments
Composed of Pia Mater
Anchor spinal cord laterally to neural canal
Separates dorsal root from ventral root
Subarachnoid space
located between arachnoid mater and pia mater, contains spinal fluid
Subderma space
Potential space (contains nothing) between derma mater and arachnoid mater
Epidural Space
Located outside of the dura mater, contains fat and veins (Batson's plexus)
Site of Lumbar puncture
Between L2 and S2 Tufflier's line (iliac crests)