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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Occurs when the wave does not proceed to the next tissue density layer.
Bending of energy waves due to change in the speed of a wave as it enters a medium (tissue) of different density.
Occurs through a medium collecting the wave and changing it into kinetic energy within the cell and then possibly into heat.
Energy not absorbed or reflected must pass to the next layer of tissue.
No reactions or changes can occur in the body’s tissue if the amount of energy absorbed is insufficient to stimulate the absorbing tissue.
Arndt-Schultz Principle
An inverse relationship exists between energy absorption by a tissue and energy penetration to deeper layers of tissue.
Law of Grothus-Draper
As the angle of the energy striking tissue deviates away from a 90° angle, the effective energy varies with the cosine of the angle.
Cosine Law
Intensity of radiant energy striking a particular surface varies inversely with the square of the distance from the radiating source.
Inverse Square Law
The distance between adjacent peaks in a series of periodic waves
Relationship between wavelength and frequency
Infrared light occurs opposite red visible light which is the _____ _____ color.
Least refracted
Visible light produces how many colors.
The radiation we use with therapeutic modalities fall on what end of the EMS.
Non-Ionizing radiation
Identify 3 characteristics of electromagnetic radiation.
1. Produced when sufficiently intense electrical or chemical forces are applied to any material;

2. Travels readily through space (in a vacuum) at an equal velocity (Speed of Light or 300 millions m/s);

3. Direction of travel (space) is always in a straight line, altering only when coming in contact with another surface;

4.Does not have a mass and is composed of pure energy.

5. Energy is reflected, refracted, absorbed, or transmitted, depending on the medium they strike.
Longer the _____the > the depth of penetration of the energy applied to a tissue.
Radiant energy in the EM spectrum possessing a long wavelength must have a _______ frequency.
Shorter or smaller
A property of a wave that describes how many wave patterns or cycles pass by in a period of time.
A temperature gradient is required to initiate a process where kinetic energy is exchanged between a collision of molecules between two surfaces.
Adding motion to a liquid or gas, such as circulating air or water, increases the substances ability to transport heat
Transfer of energy without the use of a medium.
Energy that is changed to another form to a have thermal effect on the body.
Vapocoolant spray
These physical agents use this method of heat transfer: Ice Immersion, Cryo-cuff, Paraffin bath
An infrared lamp uses this method of heat transfer.
In theory, decreasing a temperature gradient would require a clinician to do what to ensure adequate total heat transfer.
Increase the treatment time. decrease treatment area or distance separating the thermal gradient
The movement of energy from a less dense layer to a more dense layer ______ the speed of the energy.
Tissue with the lowest heat exchange rate.
The movement of energy from a dense layer to a less dense layer ______ the speed of the energy.
Identify the Law governing this example:

When using E-stim to create a muscular contraction, to achieve a depolarization of the tissue, the intensity of the current (energy) must be sufficient to facilitate a nerve depolarization.
Arndt-Schultz Principle
Identify the Law governing this example:

The greater the energy absorbed the less that is transmitted to the next layer.
Law of Grothus-Draper
E =Es / D squared
Inverse Square Law
Important for diathermy, infrared lamp, and even ultrasound which should be kept at a right angle to minimizes the amount of reflected energy.
Cosine Law
Clinical wavelength ranges from 1-15,000 km and clinical frequency ranges from 1-4000 Hz.
Electrical stimulation
Radiant energy may be produced when a sufficiently intense _____ or _____ force is applied to any object.
Chemical or electrical
This physical agent may transfer energy via conduction and radiation.
Moist hot packs
Radiant energy in the electromagnetic spectrum possessing a smaller or shorter wavelength must have a _______ frequency.
Longer or larger
Frequency is measured in _____.
In theory, increasing the distance separating two temperature gradients (physical agent and target tissue) a temperature gradient would require a clinician to do what to ensure adequate total heat transfer.
Increase the treatment time, decrease treatment area or increase temperature gradient