Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/9

Click to flip

9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Lenneberg (1967)


Critical Period

suggested that language development involved a sensitive (or ‘critical’) period.




Claims based on studies of brain damage, feral children and second language learning.




During a sensitive period exposure to relevant stimuli is essential.




puberty

Chomsky


Innate

proposed that the human capacity for language was innate.

Skinner


Behaviourist Approach

environmental principles




behaviour reinforcements




correct utterances are postively reinforced




three assumptions:


Syntax is too complex to be acquired from the input alone (poverty of the stimulus argument)




Children are not corrected on their grammatical errors (no-negative evidence problem)




The speed at which children acquire language is so fast that some elements of the system must be pre-given.

Pinker


Generativist Proposal - Continuity View

Children have access to same mental representations of grammar from birth as adults - Innate Universal Grammar (UG) (contains all the grammatical info needed to combine categories into phrases)




However some continuity accounts involve an aspect of learning (e.g. of complementisers and relativisers).




experience

Borer and Wexler (1987)


Maturational View - Subject-drop Parameter

not available until a particular point in development, and that before this point the input will have no effect on the acquisition of grammatical structure.

Radford (1990)


Maturational Approach - 3 Stages

takes a maturational approach and suggests that children go through three stages of development:




Pre-grammatical (any term used cannot be categorised as a noun/verb)




Lexical: increase in vocabulary size and emergence of word combinations




X + Complement – open door


Modifier + X – nice book




Functional stage: emergence of functional categories such as determiners, complementisers, and inflections.

Curtiss (1988)


Encapsulation

Language processing and acquisition is uses different machinery from other aspects of cognition – language is encapsulated

Mervis (1999)


Williams Syndrome

Some researchers have suggested the individuals with Williams syndrome provide evidence for the encapsulation of language




impaired syntactic ability but spared vocabulary development and general cognition




However later research presented a more complicated set of features (e.g. Karmiloff-Smith, et al., 1998)

Akhtar (1999)


Verbs - limited creativity/conservative learners

Children begin as conservative learners using structures based closely on the input.




Display limited creativity of, for example verb use.




Use verbs in the way they are presented in the input up until around three years of age.




presented children with novel verbs: Ernie meeking the car Ernie the car meeking ‘What happened?’ Meeking Ernie the car




At 2;8 only 1 out of 12 children corrected the word order but at 4;4 8/12 children did.




Only by the age of three that children display more abstract knowledge of language.