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60 Cards in this Set

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How many bones in the human body

206

Name the 4 parts that make the Skeletal system

bones


joints


cartilage


ligaments

What are the 2 divisions of the skeleton?

Axial


Appendicular

What are the 5 functions of bones

Support of the body


Protection of soft organs


Movement due to attached skeletal muscles


Storage of minerals and fats


Blood cell formation

What are the 2 basic types of bone tissue?

Compact Bone (homogenous)


Spongy Bone (small needle-like pieces of bone with many open spaces)

There are four types of bones on the basis of shape, what are they called?

Long Bones


Short Bones


Flat Bones


Irregular Bones



Briefly describe the characteristics of long bones

Typically longer than wide


have a shaft at both ends


Contain mostly compact bone


(femur, humerus)

Briefly describe the characteristics of Short bones

Generally cube shaped


Contain mostly spongy bone


(carpals, tarsals)

Briefly describe the characteristics of flat bones

Thin and flattened


usually curved


Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone


(Skull, ribs, sternum)

Briefly describe the characteristics of Irregular bones

Irregular shape


Do not fit other bone classification categories


(vertebrae, hip)

What are the names of the shaft and ends of a long bone?

Diaphysis (shaft, composed of compact bone)


Epiphysis (ends of the bone, mostly spongy bone)

Describe periosteum

it's the outside covering of the diaphysis


it's a fibrous connective tissue membrane

Describe sharpy's fibers

They secure periosteum to underlying bone

What is used to supply bone cells with nutrients?

Arteries

Describe articular cartilage

Covers the external surface of the epiphysis


made of hyaline cartilage


useful for decreasing the friction at joint surfaces

Describe the medullary cavity

It's the cavity of the shaft


Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat in adults)


Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants

What is the skeleton mostly comprised of in an embryo?

Hyaline cartilage

During fetal developement hyaline cartilage is replaced by bone, what 3 things remain mostly as cartilage?

bridge of the nose


parts of the ribs


joints

What do Epiphyseal plates allow for?

Growth of long bone during childhood

What are osteocytes?

mature bone cells

What are osteoblasts?

bone forming cells

What are osteoclasts?

Bone destroying cells


Breakdown bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium

What 2 bone cells are used in the remodeling process?

Osteoblasts


Osteoclasts

Name 8 types of different bone fractures

Comminuted (bone breaks into many pieces)


Compression (bone is crushed)


Depressed (broken bone portion is pressed inward)


Impacted ( Broken ends are forced into each other)


Spiral (caused by twisting forces)


Greenstick (partial break, bones often not fully ossified)


Compound (broken bone protrudes through skin)


Closed/simple (doesn't protrude through the skin)

How are bone fractures treated?

by reduction and immobilization


(realignment of the bone)

What are the 4 phases of bone repair?

Haematomia (blood filled swelling is formed)




Break splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus




Fibrocartillage callus replaced by bony callus




Bony callus is remodelled to form a permanent patch

What are the 3 types of tissue that make bone?

Compact tissue


Cancellous tissue


Subchondral Tissue

Describe compact tissue

harder outer tissue of bone, giving bone its strength



Describe Cancellous tissue

Sponge like tissue inside bone, reduces weight of bone and contains red marrow



Describe subchondral tissue

Smooth tissue at the end of bone, which is covered with cartilage



What kind of tissue is cartilage?

Connective.

What are the 3 types of cartilage?

Hylaine (flexible, slightly elastic, semitransparent, found at end of bones/joints)




Elastic (contains elastic fibres, found in the epiglottis, nasal septum)




Fibrocartilage (contains bundles of white fibres, intervertabral discs)

There are 2 types of marrow in bone, Red and yellow, What happens to yellow when a person starves themselves?

The yellow marrow is fatty connective tissue that the body may use for energy

What 3 types of blood cells are made in bone marrow?

Red blood cells


white blood cells


platelets

Bone is encased in 2 membranes, what are they called?

Periosteum


Endosteum

Describe the periosteum

Outside covering that contains cells (osteoblasts) that are essential for bone maturation and repair. It houses blood and lymph vessels which nourish the bone and nerve fibers.

Describe the endosteum

it's the inner membrane which lines the marrow cavity and it also contains cells that aid in growth and repair.

What is the definition of a joint?

Where two bones meet. the 2 bones are connected to each other by a tendon.

What are the 5 types of joints in the human body?

semi-moveable joints


hinged joints


immovable joints


catilagenous joints


ball and socket joints

Describe cartilagious joints

allow a small amount of movement


vertebrae are connected by cartilaginous joints


this allows the vertebrae to twist and bend

Describe the ball and socket joint

Allows the most movement



Describe a pivot joint

Allows movement from side to side


a hole in one bone fits over a pointed part in another



Describe the hinged joint

allows movement back and forth, but only in one direction


the elbow is a hinge joint

Describe immovable joints

Some bones are permanently connected, or fused.

What bones make up the axial skeleton?


(there are 5 in this list)

Skull


Vertebral column


Hyoid bone


Sternum


Ribs

What 2 sets of bones are involved in the skull?

Cranium


Facial bones

Describe paranasal sinuses

Hollow portions of bones surrounding the nasal cavity

Describe paranasal sinuses functions

Lighten the skull


give resonance and amplification of the voice

Describe what fontanelles are in relation to infant skulls

they are fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones


allow the brain to grow


convert to bone within 24 months after birth

Give a brief a description of the vertebral column

they are separated by intervertebral discs


each vertebrae is given a unique name in relation to its location

The bony thorax forms a cage to protect major organs, what are the 3 parts that make it up?

Sternum


ribs


thoracic vertebrae

What are the 3 things that re incorporated in the Appendicular skeleton?

Limbs (appendages)


pectoral girdle


pelvic girdle

Describe the Pectoral Girdle

Composed of 2 bones


Clavicle (collarbone)


Scapula (shoulder blade)


These bones give exceptional free movement

The 3 long bones that make the arm are the ...

Humerus


Ulna


Radius

What are the 3 bone names of the hand?

Carpals (wrist)


Meta Carpals (palm)


Phalanges (fingers)

The hip bones are made of 3 fused bones, what are they called?

Illium


Ischium


Pubic bone



What are 2 functions of the pelvis?

protection of vital organs (reproductive organs, urinary bladder, part of the large intestine)


The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis

What are the 3 long bones in the leg?

Femur


Tibia


Fibula

What are the names of the 3 types of bone in the foot?

Tarsus (ankle)


Metatarsals (Sole)


Phalanges (toes)

The bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches, what are they called?

Medial longitudinal Arch


Transverse arch


lateral longitudinal arch