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30 Cards in this Set

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How many skeletal muscles are needed in the body to facilitate movement?

over 600

through what form do muscles work?

Contraction and relaxation

What percentage of body weight is muscle?

40%

How are muscles joined onto bone?

Tendons

Other than movement, what is another function of weight?

Generate heat through metabolism

What are the 4 principle characteristics of muscle?

Excitability


Contractibility


Extensibility


Elasticity

Describe excitability in muscles

the ability of a muscle to receive and respond to stimuli that will initiate a nerve impulse

Describe contractibility in muscles

the ability to shorten or thicken, or contract, when a sufficient stimulus is received

Describe extensibility in muscles

the ability of muscle tissue to stretch

Describe elasticity in muscles

the ability of the muscle to return to its original shape

Through contraction, muscles performs 3 important functions, what are they?

motion


maintenance of posture


heat production

What are the 3 types of muscle?

Skeletal


Smooth


Cardiac

Cardiac muscle is only found where?

Atria, Ventricles

Describe some characteristics of cardiac muscle

it's an involuntary muscle because conscious thought does not control its contractions


specialized cardiac muscle cells maintain a consistent heart rate

Where is smooth muscle is found?

throughout the body, including visceral (internal) organs, blood vessels and glands



What part does smooth muscle play in the digestive tract?

Smooth muscle is involuntary, it's extensively used in the digestive tract to create peristalsis (wave like contractions) that aids in food digestion and transport

What role does skeletal muscle play in the body?

skeletal muscle is a system pairs of muscle that relax and contract to move a joint

Why do skeletal muscle have muscle tone?

They remain partly contracted to help maintain body posture and remain ready for physical activity

What are skeletal muscles doing when they move?

Skeletal muscles are made of many smaller muscle fibers that slide across each other

What does the relaxed muscle look like?

long and thin

What does a contracted muscle look like?

short and thick

What is it called when set of muscles work together to facilitate movement?

Antagonistic pairs

What is the definition of flexor

The flexor is the muscle in each pair which contracts to bend the joint (e.g. biceps)

What is the definition of extensor

the extensor is the muscle in each pair which contracts to straighten the joint

What is the term used when total muscle tone is lost

flaccid, this can happen through nerve damage or disease such as muscular dystrophy

If muscles do not receive impulses or remain unused for long periods of time, what happens to the muscle?

They first become flaccid and then begin to atrophy, which is a state of wasting away.

The source of muscle energy comes from a process called respiration, describe respiration

The energy for contractions comes from breaking down glucose.

What are the 2 types of respiration

Anaerobic and aerobic

Describe Aerobic respiration

Muscles are receiving a continuous flow of oxygen and glucose to the muscles and waste is removed


This gives the body the most amount of energy rich ATP



Describe anaerobic respiration

Occurs during rapid strenuous activity


Oxygen demands aren't met so the body produces small amounts of ATP with lactic acid building up which tires the muscles


Lactic acid eventual stops muscles working