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50 Cards in this Set

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Which nerve root carries sensory information into the spinal cord

Dorsal (posterior)

Which nerve root carries motor information out of the spinal cord?

Ventral (anterior)

How many regions is the spinal cord separated into?

5 (some say 4)

What is the highest region of the spinal cord and how many pairs of spinal nerves come out of it?

The cervical spinal nerve region, 8 pairs

What is the second highest region of the spinal cord and how many pairs of spinal nerves come out of it?

Thoracic spinal nerve region, 12 pairs

What is the third highest region of the spinal cord and how many pairs of spinal nerves come out of it?

Lumbar spinal nerve region, 5 pairs

What is the fourth lowest region of the spinal cord and how many pairs of spinal nerves come out of it?

Sacral spinal nerve region, 5 pairs

What is the lowest region of the spinal cord and how many pairs of spinal nerves come out of it?



Coccyggeal spinal nerve region, 1 pair

How many pairs of spinal nerves in the whole spine?

31pairs



What three layers surround the spinal cord for protection?

The meninges: pia mater, arachnoid mater, dura mater

What are the two parts of the efferent division?

somatic and autonomic

What are somatic neurons?

Motor neurons(skeletal muscles) producing conscious voluntary movement.

what does the ANS regulate?

(visceral activities) heart beat, smooth muscle contraction, secretions.

What is the most important nerve from the cervical plexus and why?

The phrenic nerve and because irritation can cause spasms of the diaphragm or hiccups and if either nerves a severed this will lead to respiratory arrest and death

What is a plexus?

a network of branching and intersecting nerves

What injuries are common for the brachial plexus?

upper limbs being puled, blows, stretching. This plexus ends in axilla- axillary, median, ulnar, radial nerves



What is the largest nerve in the lumbar plexus?

Femoral nerve

What is the largest branch of the sacral plexus?

The sciatic nerve which supplies the entire lower limb, 'shooting pain'

What is a dermatome?

A skin surface area supplied by sensory fibres of a given spinal nerve

What is a myotome?

a skeletal muscle or group of muscles that receives motor fibres from a given spinal nerve

What does the afferent division of the PNS do?

carries sensory information to the CNS

What does the efferent division of the PNS do?

is the motor communication link for CNS to control effector activities (muscles, glands)

What are the two divisions of the PNS?

afferent and efferent

What are the two separate neural pathways of the autonomic nervous system?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

How are the two divisions antagonistic?

one inhibits the effectors(parasympathetic), the other stimulates the effectors(sympathetic)

Preganglionic fibres from the SNS and PNS release what?

Acetylcholine

PNS post ganglionic fibers release what?

Aecetylcholine cholinergic fibers

SNS post ganglionic fibers release mostly what?

Noradrenaline-adrenergic fibers

What are the two types of adrenergic receptors and where are they found?

Alpha and beta- found on plasma membrane of different effectors

Activation of alpha 1 results in what?

excitatory response on smooth muscle of blood vessels =vasoconstriction

What is total peripheral resistance?

a measure of the total resistance to blood flow provided by the entire vascular system

Vasoconstriction due to activation of alpha 1 increases TPR and therefore does what?

Increases BP



What is an example of a a medication that is an antagonism of alpha 1

Prazosin

Where is beta 1 mainly found and is it inhibitory or excitatory?

Heart but also kidneys, excitatory

What is the function of Beta 2?is it inhibitory or excitatory?

dilatation of bronchial smooth muscle- inhibitory

What is the function of Beta 3?

lipolysis by fat cells



What does agonism/activation of Beta 1 receptors do?

Increases heart rate and blood pressure

What is an example of a medication that is an antagonism of beta 1?

Atenolol- antihypertensive

what is an example of a medication that is an agonism of Beta2?

salbutamol- bronchodilator

What are the two types of acetylcholine (cholinergic) receptors?

Nicotinic and Muscarinic

Where is the nicotinic receptor found?

found in synapses of both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems as well as the neuromuscular junction

where is the muscarinic (m1) receptor found and is it excitatory or inhibitory?

Neuroal (CNS) -excitatory

Where is M2 receptor found and is it excitatory or inhibitory?

cardiac(heart, peripheral and central neutrons), inhibitory, inhibits heart rate

Where is M3 receptor found? Is it excitatory or inhibitory?

Glandular/smooth muscle -excitatory, -salivation, sweating, and lacrimation

Give an example of a medication that acts on nicotinic receptors

Rocuronium, -used during general anaesthesia- muscle relaxant

Give an example of a medication that is a muscarinic receptor agonist

Ipratropium, tiotropium- used in the management of COPD and severe asthma

what is dual innervation?

exert opposite effects in a particular organ

What does the sympathetic division promote?

Promotes responses that prepare the body for an emergency or for a stressful situation.

Give some examples of the responses the sympathetic division stimulates?

increased heart rate, increased heart contractility, dilation of coronary vessels of heart, dilation of blood vessels in skeletal muscles, constriction of blood vessels in digestive organs, contraction of spleen, dilation of airways, increased rate and depth of breathing, increased sweating, increased conversion of glycogen into glucose

What does the parasympathetic division promote?

rest and repair. -Slows heart beat, decreases cardiac contractility, increases GIT peristalsis, promotes digestion and elimination, increases pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes and insulin