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31 Cards in this Set

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Sampling Steps

Identify Population of Interest

Establish Sampling Frame

Select a Sample from Frame

Generalize findings to larger population

Simple Random Sampling

Samplingin which the probability of being selected for a study is equal for all.


Assigna number to everyone in your sampling frame.Randomlygenerate numbers and select the corresponding participant.t

Systematic Random Sampling

Usedwhen you want to select a small sample from a much larger group.


Randomlyselect the first participant.Thenselect the “Nth” participant down the list.ExampleListof all undergrads at UM.Randomlyselect the first participant.Thenselect the 20thperson down the list…and the next 20th…andthe next 20th.

Biases in Sampling Data

SamplingBiasExcludingor including certain participants.

InterviewerBiasInterviewermay influence participants.

InterviewerErrorErrorsin procedure and analysis.

InstrumentErrorDatacollection tool may be flawed.

ResponseBiasParticipantsmay alter answers.

Qualitative Research

Amethod of inquiry used to capture the authentic lived experiences of humans andtheir social environment.Typicallyinvolves the collection and analysis of words rather than numbers.Useof open-ended questions.Oftenused alongside quantitative methods in “mixed methods” studies.Canbe both exploratory and confirmatory

Narrative Approach

Explorespeople’s narratives or stories about their world.Examples:Biographies, autobiographies, life history, oral history.

Phenomenological Approach

Focuseson the individual and the meanings behind common experiences.

Example:Everyday stigmatization and marginalization of individuals with physicaldisabilities.

Grounded Theory Approach

Seeksto develop a theory through the inductive analysis of data collected on peoplewith shared experiences.Examples:Developing a theoretical framework for “coming out” experiences of gay men.

Ethnographic Approach

Exploresthe culture of a group of people. Example:Researcher embeds herself into the migrant worker population.

Case Study Approach

Exploring one or more cases that are part of a system, setting, or context.

Examples:Using a case study to illustrate the challenges of living in the foster care system.

Participatory or Action-oriented Approach

Collectionof contextual qualitative data with the intention of creating social change.

Example:Photo-voice project designed to capture the lives of undocumented workers withthe intention of changing policy.

See Slide 28 on Review

Data Sources: Interviews

Theprimary source of data for most qualitative research studies.Typesof Interviews

InformalConversationTellme about your life as an undergrad.

Semi-StructuredInterviewsOrganizedset of general topics to explore.

StructuredInterviewsPre-setwording and sequencing of open-ended questions.H

Data Sources: Focus Groups

Groupinterviews using many of the same approaches as individual interviews.Facilitatedby the researcher or another trained professional.Typicallycomprised of 6-10 individuals. Typicallylast approx. 1-2 hours.AdvantagesCheapway to reach a group.Allowsfor group processing.

Data Sources: Observations

Recordingthe actions, conversations, and behaviors of people.Requiresextensive training and can involve the use of high-tech approaches.Canconsist of field notes, video recordings, time recordings, and vividdescription.Example:Time study of discharge planners in a geriatric rehabilitation unit.

Data Sources: Archival Records & Documents

Unobtrusiveand non-reactive sources of data (not people).Governmentor agency records, case records, program files, publications, reports, letters,and photos.Usefulon their own and for triangulating data from interviews and observations.

Theme Analysis

PurposeToidentify patterns or themes in cases.Numberof Cases :

Atleast two and typically 15-30.

Unitof Analysis: Individuals,case records, observations, written documents.

DataCollection Approaches: Interviews,archival data, focus groups, observations.

Content Analysis

Analysisof qualitative data in search of specific words or phrases.Typically,the rules or “coding framework” are established before data analysis.Onceyou establish this framework, you search and code the data similar to thematicanalysis.Thedifference is that you are looking for repetitive words and phrases.Usefulfor researchers in examining meanings and labels tied to words and phrases.Example:Qualitative study of newspaper articles use of terms to describe homelessindividuals.

Ethnographic Analysis

“Fieldresearch” where researchers are embedded (but not in bed) with the studypopulation.Dataincluded detailed field notes, descriptive accounts, and observations.“ConstantComparative Method of Analysis”Dataare analyzed as they are collected.Allowsfor the emergence of theories to helpexplain the lived experiences of individuals and communities.ExampleResearchersembedding themselves with low-income factory workers to learn about theirlives..

Observational Analysis

Theanalysis of social situations mostly through observation.Benefits– Non-obtrusive, able to capture the natural environment without influencingit.Typesof Data – Note, diagrams, phots, recordings.DataAnalysis – Relies upon the same techniques as other qualitative research. Searching for patterns, themes, and emergingtheories and explanations.Example– Riding the public bus for several days and observing interactions betweenpeople.

Translational Research

transforms scientific discoveries arising from laboratory, clinical, or population studies into clinical applications and practice

Evidence-based practice

Verb– Identifying a problem, evaluating evidence, incorporating client &practitioner views, and decided on treatment/action.Noun– Empirically validated interventions and protocols.

SSD: Baseline data

Datacollected prior to the introduction of an intervention.

SSD: Intervention

Aclinical technique aimed at changing behavior.Achange in organizational policy.Thetask is to see if there is change in the target behavior following theintroduction of the intervention.

SSD: A-B Design

Mostcommonly design in single subject research.A= Baseline Phase; B = Intervention Phase

Logic Model

Tool for identifying and evaluating thechange process in a program.Can be used in a variety of situation,such as:Evaluatinga short-term intervention.Evaluatinga complex organization.Evaluatinga community organizing or advocacy effort.Evaluatinga policy change.

Common Components of Logic Model

Problem or Situation

Target Population


Inputs or Resources




Assets and Needs Assessments

Study that seeks to determine the existence and magnitude of a problem andthe population that is affected.Example: A community needs assessment ofthe health of older adults, the services that they use, and the services thatthey need.

Process Evaluation

Study that serves to examine a program’sprocess or course of action that leads to its projected outcomes.Example: A study of an afterschoolreading program that looks at (1) the intentions of the program, (2) theactivities, (3) the fidelity of the program delivery, and (4) the number ofchildren that attended and completed the program.

Outcome Evaluation

A study that is conducted to determine ifa program has reached its desired goals and objectives.Example: A study to evaluate the impactof a school lunch program to reduce childhood obesity and increase knowledgeabout nutrition. Health eatingintervention is a 12-week intervention. Children are evaluated pre and post intervention on height, weight, BMI,and nutrition knowledge.

Efficiency Evaluation

A study that compares the effects of aprogram to its cost: cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis.Example: A study to determine therelationship between the benefits of the Head Start program and the costs ofproviding the program. Benefits includehigher school achievement less use of remedial and special education, andbetter long-term outcomes. Costs includedirect program administration and indirect expenses and overhead.