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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

When was the field of audiology created? Why?

After WW II, to address the hearing problems in the veteran population after the war.

Who is C.C. Bunch?

First person to be given credit for the profession of audiology. Used audiometers.

Who is Raymond Carhart?

A student of C.C. Bunch. He developed protocols for hearing aids and made a graduate program in the field.

Who is Hayes Newby?

He wrote the first audiology textbook.

Who is James Jerger?

He created the first Au. D. program.

What change occurred in the 1970's that affected audiology?

Hearing aids were declared medical devices by the FDA, allowing audiologists to dispense them.

What change occurred in the 1980's that affected audiology?

We switched to digital hearing aids.

What are some responsibilities of audiologists?

Identifying hearing loss/vestibular problems, evaluation (testing), preventing hearing loss, rehabilitation (hearing aids, cochlear implants, ect.), education, and referring clients as needed.

What are the major settings audiologists work in?

Private practice, hospitals/medical centers, schools, universities, industry settings, manufacturers, and at ENT offices.

What educational requirements changed in 2007?

You have to have a doctoral degree (Au. D.).

What's the difference between being certified and being licensed for audiologists?

They are required to be licensed in the state they work in, not certified. That's optional (CCC-A, ect.).

What's the range of human hearing?

20-20K Hz.

What's the purpose of the pinna?

Collect sound, localization, cosmetic, resonator.

What are the portions of the ear canal made of?

Lateral 1/3 is made of cartilage, medial 2/3 is made of bone.

What is cerumen and how is it produced?

Ear wax! Produced in the medial 2/3 of the EAM and is made up of sweat, glandular secretions, and dead skin cells.

What does it mean that the outer ear is a resonator? Why does it matter?

The pinna and the EAM both increase the signal so that it's easier for us to hear stimuli. This is important for speech recognition.

What are the layers of the tympanic membrane?

Lateral layer is made of skin (continuous with EAM), middle layer is fibrous tissue, and medial layer is membranous.

What does the eardrum do?

It vibrates as sound waves hit it, setting the ossicular chain in motion. Also serves as a barrier to the middle ear.

What are the bones of the middle ear?

Malleus, incus, and stapes.

Name the muscles of the middle ear.

Stapedius muscle and tensor tympani.

What does the eustachian tube do?

It equalizes pressure in the middle ear cavity.

What are the names of the three fluid-filled chambers of the inner ear and what are the fluids inside each?

Scala vestibuli (perilymph), scala media/cochlear duct (endolymph), and scala tympani (perilymph).

What are the names of the membranes separating the chambers in the cochlea?

Basilar membrane, Reissner's membrane, tectorial membrane.

How do outer hair cells and inner hair cells differ?

OHCs jump to make soft sounds audible and they're responsible for relaying information to the IHCs. IHCs send information to the auditory nerve (where they're embedded) and are stationary. We have 3 rows of OHCs and only 1 row of IHCs.

The base of the cochlea is tuned to XXX sounds and the apex is tuned to XXX sounds.

High frequency (base), low frequency (apex).

What are the energy transformations that occur during the hearing process?

Acoustic energy to mechanical energy to hydraulic energy to electrochemical energy.

Cranial nerve VIII is made up of the...

(2 things)

Auditory and vestibular pathways.

Which hair cells innervate the auditory nerve fibers?

Inner hair cells.

When the auditory nerve fibers leave the cochlea, what happens and where do they go before entering the brainstem?

The fibers pass through the osseous spiral lamina in the cochlea, then the auditory nerve joins the vestibular nerve in the internal auditory meatus to form the cranial nerve VIII and then enters the brainstem at the level of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Then it bifurcates into the auditory nerve and the vestibular nerve.

What systems and/or inner ear structures are responsible for the maintenance of balance?

The vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual systems. The semicircular canals are the structure of the inner ear that is involved with the vestibular system.

Which parts of the vestibular system are responsible for detecting linear acceleration? Angular acceleration?

Linear (up and down an elevator): Utricle and saccule.

Angular (tilting head side to side): Semicircular canals.

Head and body movements are detected by what kind of hair cells in what 2 structures?

Sensory hair cells, ampullae and maculae.

What are the auditory and vestibular nuclei?

Places in the brain that deal with auditory/vestibular information.

List the relay stations of the auditory pathway.

Cranial nerve VIII to cochlear nucleus to superior olivary complex (binaural integration), lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, to auditory complex (Heschl's gyrus then Wernicke's area of the temporal lobe).

What is binaural integration and where does this happen?

Binaural integration is when the brain takes into account information from both ears. Happens in the superior olivary complex.

Where do the vestibular nerve fibers project to?

Cerebellum, ocular muscles of the eye, motor nuclei of the spinal cord, and the area postrema (nausea center).

What is needed for sound to exist?

A medium and an energy source (pressure wave).

What are the clinical applications of acoustics in audiology?

Hearing is the perception of sound, so we must understand the acoustics of sound before we can read audiograms or do environmental manipulations.

What's the difference between condensation/compression and rarefaction?

Condensation/compression has tightly-packed molecules and rarefaction has loosely-packed molecules.

What is period and what is the relationship between it and frequency?

Period is time and it has an inverse relationship with frequency (P=1/F and vice versa).

What is phase?

Phase is one cycle of a sound wave.

What's the difference between a simple and a complex sound?

Simple sounds are single-frequency pure-tones (tuning forks) and are rarely found in nature. Complex sounds have energy at more than one frequency.

What's a decibel? Who defined it?

A decibel is 1/10 of a bel and measures amplitude/intensity. William Graham Bell defined it.

What are the different types of dB measurement and which one is used on the audiogram?

dB SPL (sound pressure level), dB IL (intensity level), and dB HL (hearing level). dB HL is used on audiograms????

What are the units of measurement for frequency? Intensity?

Frequency: Hz

Intensity: dB

What's an audiogram?

A graphic representation of absolute sensitivity across different frequencies.

What is audiometric zero?

dB SPL at which the threshold of audibility occurs for normal listeners.

Before conversion to audiometric zero, what are the average thresholds at 125, 250, 1000, and 4000 Hz?

125 Hz: 45 dB SPL

250 Hz: 25 dB SPL

1000 Hz: 7 dB SPL

4000 Hz: 10 dB SPL

What is ANSI?

American National Standards Institute

What's the psychological correlate of intensity? Frequency?

Intensity is perceived as loudness and frequency is perceived as pitch.

Amplitude is also known as?

Intensity, loudness.

What are the bone conduction and air conduction pathways?

Bone conduction goes through the mastoid process of the temporal bone straight to the cochlea. Air conduction goes all the way through the outer and middle ear structures before reaching the cochlea.

What are the 3 types of hearing loss?

Conductive hearing loss (problem is in the outer or middle ear), sensorineural hearing loss (problem is in the inner ear or beyond), and mixed hearing loss (combination of the two).