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135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the process of acting on information
human communication
the process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others by creating meaning though verbal and nonverbal messages
a word, sound, gesture, or visual image that represents a thought, concept, object, or experience
the beliefs, values, and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong
the originator of a thought or emotion, who puts it into a code that can be understood by a reciver
the process of translating ideas, feelings, and thoughts, into a code
the process of interpreting ideas, feelings, and thoughts that have been translated into a code
the person who decodes a message and attempts to make sense of what the source has encoded
written, spoken, and unspoken elements of communication to which people assign meaning
the pathway through which messages are sent
interfernce, either literal or psychological, that hinders the accurate encoding or decoding of a message.
the response to a message
the physical, historical, and psycholgical communication enviornment
mediated communication
any communication that is carried out using some channel other than those used in face-to-face communication
synchronous communication
communication in which timing is our of sync; there is a time delay between when you send a message and when it is received
the new information, ideas, or suggested actions that a communicatior whiches to express; what is said
relationship dimension
the aspect of a communication message that offers cues about the emotions, attitudes, and amount of power and control the speacker directs toward others; how something is said
a followable presctiption that indicates what behavior is required or preferred and what behavior is prohibited in a specific situation
intrapersonal communication
communication that occurs within yourself, including your thoughts and emotions
the system of symbols (word or vocabulary) structured by rules (grammer) that makes it possible for people to understande one another
nonverbal communication
communication by means other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone
being focued on the needs and concerns of others while maintaining one's personal integrity
to adjust both what is communicated and how a message is communicated; to make choices about how best to formulate a message and respond to others to achieve your communication goals
interpersonal communication
communication that occurs simulaneously between two people who attempt to mutually influence each other, usually for the purpose of managing relationships
inpersonal communciation
communication that reats people as objects, or that responds only to their roles, rather than to who they are as unique people.
a collection of people who have a common goal, fell a sense of belonging to the group, and inflence each other
small group communication
the reansactive process of creating meaning among three to about fifteen people who chare a common purpose, fell a sense of belongin to the group, and exert influence on one another
two interactin people
a coordinated group of people interntionally organized to work toegher to achieve a common goal
presentational communication
communication that occures when a speaker addesses a gethering of people in order to infom, persuade, or entertain them
the process of using symbols to influence or persuade others
mass communcation
communciation accomplished through a mediated message that is sent to many people at the same time.
organizational communication
the study of human communication as it occures within organizations
health communciation
the study of communication that has an impact on human health
symbolic self-awareness
a unique human ability to develop and communicate a representation of ones self to others through oneself to others through language
the sum of who you are as a person; your central inner force
you interior identity of subjective description of who you think you are.
your view of yourself in a particular situation or cirumstance
a learned prediposition to respond to a person, object, or idea in a favorable or unfavorable way.
the way in which you structure your understandin of reality-what is true and what is false
an enduring concept of good and bad, right, and wrong.
material self
the element of the self reflected in all the tangible things you own
social self
you concept of self as develped through you personal, social interactions with others
spiritual self
you concept of self, based on beliefs and you sense of who you are in relationship to other forces in the universe; also includes your thoughts and introspections about your values and moral standers
avowed identity
an identit you assign to yourself and portray
ascribed identity
An identity assigned to you by others
the human ability to think about what you are doing while you are doing it.
your assessment of your worth or values as reflected in your perception of such things as your skill, abilites, talents, and apperarance
self-concept clarity
the extent to which beliefs about oneself are clearly and confidently identified and stable over time
the biological and physiological characeristics that make a person female or male
a cultural construcation that includes one's biological sex, psychologiacl characteristics (femininity, ,asculinity, androgyny), attitudes about the sexes, and secual orientation
social comparison
process of comparing oneself to others to measure one's worth in relationship to others who are similar
goals you set for yourself; how you belive you ought to behave and what you ought to accomplish
self-fulfilling prophecy
the notion that predictions about one's future are likely to come true because one believes that they will come true
intrapersonal communication
how you take in stimuli in the enciorment or information and make sense our of it; also thought and ideas that you say to yourself
inner speech; communication with the self
the technique of imagining that you are performing a particualr task in a certain way; a method of enhancing self-esteem
the process of redefining events and experiences from a different point of view
the arousal of any of your senses
the act of perceiving stimuli in your environment
the act of choosing specific stimuli in you enviorment to focus on
converting information into convenient, understandable, and efficient patters that allow us to make sense of what we have observes
the perceptual process of filling in missing information
attaching meaning to what is attended to, selected and organized
a generalization applied to persons percieved to have attributes common to a particular group
indirect perception checking
using you own perceptual abilites to seek additional information to confirm or refute you interpretations of someone's behavior
direct perception checking
asking someone else wheter your interpretations of what you perceive are correct
a system of symbols (words or voc) structured by rules (grammar) and patterns (syntax) common to a community of people
a person's interpretation of a symbol
a communication problem that arises when the same words mean different things to differnet people
denotative meaning
the restrictive, or literal, meaning of a word
connotative meaning
the personal and subjective meaning of a word
concrete meaning
meaning that refers to something that can be precievied with one of the senses
a new term introduced into a language
abstract meaning
meaning that referes to something that cannot be percived or experiences with one of the senses
a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitueds, belifes, values, rules, and norms that is shared by a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next
the tendency to describe things in extremes, as though no middle ground existed
a word barrier created through the use of language that reflects unqualified, often untrue generalizations that deny individual differences or variations
sexist (exclusive) language
language that reveals bias in favor of one sex and against another
heterosexist language
language that reveals an assumption that the world is heterosexual, as if homosexuality or bisexuality did not exist
homophobic language
language that overtly denigrates persons of nonheterosexual orientations, usually arising out of a feat of being labeled gay of lesbian
generic language
general terms that stands for all persons or things within a given category
trigger word
a form of language that arouses strong emotions in listeners
supportive communication
lanuguage that vreats a climate of trust, caring, and accpetance
defensive communciation
language that dreats a climate of hostility and mistrust
the ability to understand and feel what another person is feeling
expectancy violations model
a model that suggests that we develop ruels or expections for appropriate nonverbal behavior and react when those expectations are violated
perception checking
the skill of asking other observers or the person being pbserved whether your interpretation of his or her nonverbal beavior is accurate
clothing or another element of appearance (eg jewelry, tattoos, piercing, makeup, cologne)
human movement, gesture, and posture
a nonverbal cue that has a specific, generally understood meaning in a given culture and may substiture for a word or phrase
a nonverbal behavior that accompanies a verbal message and either complements, contradicts, or accents it.
affect display
a nonverbal behavior that communicated emotions
a nonverbal behavior that helps to control the interaction or level of communication between people
a nonverbal behavior that helps satisfy a personal need and allos a person to adapt or respond to the immediate siruation
quasi-courtship behavior
nonverbal behaviors exhibited both consciously and unconsciously when we are attreacted to someone.
the study of human touch
touch ethic
a person's own guidelines or standards as to appropriate and inappropriate touch
paralanguage (vocalics)
nonverbal aspects of voice (pitch, rate, volume, use of silence)
back-channel cue
a vocal cue that signals when we want to talk and when we don't
response latency
the amount of time it takes someone to formulate a response to a statement of question in conversation
the study of how close or far away from people and objects we position ourselves
the study of how human use space and objects to communicate occupancy or ownership of space
territorial marker
a thing or action that signifies an area has been claimed
nonverbal behaviors such as eye contact, forward lean, touch, and open body orientation that communicate feelings of interest and excitment
nonverbal behaviors such as relaxed posture, greater personal space, and protect personal space that communicate power status and control
exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics
fear or aversion to, or discrimination against gays or lesbians
a social classification based on factors, such as nationality, religon, and language as well as ancestral heritage, that are shared by a group of people with a common geographic origin
the unfair or inappropriate treatment or people based on their group membership
the integration of economics and technology that is contributing to a worldwide, interconnected budiness enviorment
a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, belifes, values, and norms that is shared by a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next
a culture that exists within a larger cultureal context (gay and lesbian cultures, amish culture)
intercultural communication
communication between people who have differnet cultureal traditions
culture shock
fellings of confusion, loss, stress, and anxiety that a person may experience when encountering a culture different from his or her own
a perspective shared by a culture or group of people about key, beliefs and issues, such as death, God, and the meaning of life, which influences interaction with others; the lens through which people in a given culture perceive the world around them
cultural context
additional information about a message that is communicated through nonverbal and envionmental cues rather than through language
high-context culture
a culture which people derive much information from nonverbal and enviornmental cues and less information from the words of a message
low-context culture
a culture in which people derive much information from the words of a message and less infromation from nonverbal and enviormental cues
cultural values
whatever a given group of people values or appreciated
collectivistic culture
a culture that places a high value on collaboration, teawork, and group achievement
individualistic culture
a culture that values individual achievement and personal accomplishments
masculine culture
a cultur ethat values achievement, assertiveness, heroism, material wealth, and traditional male and female roles
feminine culture
a culture that values being sensitive toward others and fostering harmonious personal realtionships with others
the belief that one's own cultural traditions and assumptions are superior to those of others
a judgment of someone based on an assumption that you already know relevant facts or background information about the person
intercultural communication competence
the ability to adapt one's behavior toward another person in ways that are appropiate to the other person's culture
ethnocentric cultural perspective
the view that one's own culture is superior to all other cultures
ethnorelative cultural perspective
an appreciation for and sensitivity to cultural differences
aware of what you are doing and how you are communicating with others
focused on onesefl and one's importance
other-oriented communication
communication in which we focus on the needs and concerns of others while maintaining our personal integrity; achieved through the processes of socially decentering and being empathic
social dectering
a cognitive process through which we talk take into account another person's thoughts, values, background, and perspectives
an emotional reaction that is similar to the reaction being experienced by another person
an acknowledgment that someone is feeling a certain emotion, often grief' compassion