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37 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When do you use PRESENT PERFECT?
what someone has done
What is the conjugation of PRESENT PERFECT?
he, has, ha, han, hemos
What is the construction of PRESENT PERFECT?
present tense of haber + past participle
When do you use PAST PERFECT?
what someone had done
What is the construction of PAST PERFECT?
imperfect tense of haber + past participle
What is the conjugation of PAST PERFECT?
habia, habias, habia, habiamos, habian
When do you use the PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE?
to talk about what has happened
What is the conjugation of PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE?
haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan
What is the construction of PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE?
present subjunctive of haber + past particple
When is the subjunctive used in the subordinate clause (adjective?)
When it refers to a person, place, thing, or idea that does not exist or whose existence is uncertain or indefinite
When is the indicative used in the subordinate clause?
When it refers to a known object, place, thing, or person
Affirmative nosotros commands rules?
Always have object pronouns attached, with written accent. For negative commands, object pronouns should be attached behind
How do you use past participles as adjectives?
Add -ado for -ar verbs, and -ido for -er and -ir verbs
What do you put in subordinate clause when main clause is emotion/feeling?
subjunctive
What are some common verbs and expressions of emotion?
senator - to be sorry, temer- to be afraid, es tuna lastima- is a shame
What do you put in subordinate clause when main clause is doubt/denial
subjunctive
What do you put in subordinate clause when main clause is certainty or no doubt?
indicative
What is the acronym used to remember when to use indicative in subordinate?
VOCES
Which conjunctions are used for BOTH subjunctive and indicative?
cuando, despues de que, en cuanto, hasta que, tan pronto como
What do affirmative tu commands, or familiar commands, have as form?
El ella form of present indicative
What is the acronym used to remember the irregular affirmative tu commands?
van diesel has ten weapons (ven di sal haz ten ve pon sé)
How do you do negative tu commands?
Drop -o of yo form of present tense, and add -es or -as
When do you use por vs para?
Por is through place, para is towards, por is duration, para is deadline, por is reason or motive, para is indication of for whom something is done
What do reciprocal reflexives do?
Express shared reciprocal action between two or more people or things, use reciprocal pronouns
What are the conjugations of stressed possessive adjectives?
mio, tuyo, suyo, nuestro
How can you shorten stressed possesive adjectives?
La camera nuestra ——> La nuestra
What do you use relative pronouns for?
Combine two sentences or clauses that share common element, such as noun or pronoun
What are some relative pronouns?
Que, quien, lo que
How do you conjugate formal commands?
Take opposite of end letter of regular ud or uds form. Ex. limpiar —> limpie
What are the changes of -car -gar and -zar in formal commands?
c—> qu g —> gu z —> c
What are the irregular formal commands?
den, esten, vayan, sepan, sean
Where do indirect and direct object pronouns go in affirmative commands?
End of verb, with two syllables, add accent mark. For negative, they go before verb
How do you conjugate present subjunctive?
Take yo form, drop -o, and add e or a
What are irregular verbs in subjunctive present?
Same as irregular yo forms, but with a or e
What do you put in subordinate when main clause is will or influence?
subjunctive
What is the conjugation of imperfect tense?
cantaba, bebia
When do you use imperfect tense?
Incomplete or continuing actions, kind of like reading a book