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430 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The printed word
la palabra impresa.
I speak Spanish
Hablo español. (present =present)
They are living in Spain.
Viven en España(present indicative is equivalent to the present progressive in English.)
Do you speak Spanish?
Hablas español? (in the interrogative, present is equivalent to “do” or “does”+ a verb.”)
Shall I buy it?/ Should I buy it?
Lo compro? (other translation of present interrogative)
If Iris does it, I will pay her.
Si lo hace Iris, le pago. (with “si” meaning “if” use the present)
I don’t know if it will rain.
No sé si lloverá. (use future with if that means whether)
We are studying.
Estamos estudiando. (use progressive because action if ongoing)
Josefina is leaving tomorrow at ten.
Josefina se va mañana a las diez. (never use progressive to refer to the future.)
He is looking for his dog/He is going around looking for his dog.
Anda buscando a su perro. (can use andar, seguir, and ir with progressive)
We are understanding little by little.
Poco a poco vamos comprendiendo.
They are still sleeping.
Siguen durmiendo.
Celia walked all afternoon.
Celia caminó toda la tarde. (action-verb is preterite except: habitual actions, interrupted actions, photographic actions, or future in the past.)
Celia used to walk in the afternoons for one hour.
Celia caminaba todas las tardes por una hora. (action-verb is preterite except: habitual actions, interrupted actions, photographic actions, or future in the past)
For three years, I accompanied Celia to school every day.
Por tres años acompañé Celia a la escuela todas los días. (action-verb is preterite except: habitual actions, interrupted actions, photographic actions, or future in the past—time limitation makes it preterite)
When I saw her, Celia was walking with her dog and her friend. The dog was running here and there.
Cuando la vi, Celia caminaba con su perro y su amiga. El perro corría de un lado a otro. (action-verb is preterite except: habitual actions, interrupted actions, photographic actions, or future in the past)
I felt sad because my best friend was getting married that weekend.
Me sentí triste porque mi mejor amiga se casaba ese fin de semana. (action-verb is preterite except: habitual actions, interrupted actions, photographic actions, or future in the past)
When I was a kid, my parents would take(or used to take me, took me) me to the movies once a week.
Cuando era niño, mis padres me llevaban al cine una vez por semana. (in English habitual actions are expressed by “used to” or “would” before the verb or simply the verb in the past(took))
If I were rich, I would buy an island.
Si fuera rico, me compraría una isla. (would in the conditional sense brings the subjunctive)
He would not tell me the secret, no matter how much I insisted.
No quiso decirme el secreto, por más que yo insistiera. (would is in the negative to indicate refusal, use negative preterite querer)
My brother would not tell me anything sad ever.
Mi hermano no me decía nunca nada triste. (would is negative of a habit so use imperfect, the context will tell you if it was a refusal or a habit)
I thought you were asleep
Pensé que estabas dormido. (pensar is a an action here, )
At that time they thought the world was flat.
En esa época pensaban que el mundo era plano. (pensar is a non-action verb here. Non-action verb is imperfect)
I was fifteen years old in this picture.
Yo tenía quince años en esta foto. (Non-action verb is imper)
At that time, my father was in Mexico.
En ese entonces, mi padre estaba en México. (Non-action verb is imperf)
I liked life there.
A mí me gustaba la vida allá (Non-action verb is imperf)
It was going to rain.
Iba a llover. ( ir is non-action verb here because it expresses future, Non-action verb is imperf)
I was at a party when you called.
Estaba en una fiesta cuando llamaste. (Non-action or state-- verb is imperfect )
We were at that party for about three hours.
Estuvimos en esa fiesta unas tres horas. (Non-action verb is imperfect except: change, time limitation, reaction, event)
My mother had fours sons at that time.
Mi madre tenía cuatro hijos en esa época(non action or state—imperfect)
My mother had her third child in this hospital.
Mi madre tuvo su tercer hijo en este hospital. (Non-action verb is imperfect except: change, time limitation, reaction, event)
I like the horror movies when I was a teenager.
Me gustaban las películas de horror cuando era adolescente. (non-action or state—imperfect)
I liked the movie we saw last night.
Me gusto la película que vimos anoche. (Non-action verb is imperfect except: change, time limitation, reaction, event)
In that instant, he believed in God.
En ese instante creyó en Dios. (sudden conversion=prêt)
There was a storm, a strike, a fight, a fire, etc
Hubo una tormenta, una huelga, una pelea, un incendio, etc. (events or actions = pret)
It was very cold yesterday.
Hacía mucho frío ayer. (no change, reaction/action, or time limitation so imp)
I was in Spain when I heard the news
Estaba en España cuando oí la noticia.
He found out that she had died.
Supo que ella había muerto.
They could work together.
Podían trabajar juntos.
After a lot of efforts, they succeeded in opening the window.
Después de mucho esfuerzo, pudieron abrir la ventana. (prêt poder= succeed/manage, neg=fail)
They could not get out.
No pudieron salir. (prêt poder= succeed/manage, neg=fail)
He tried to escape, but failed.
Quiso escaper, pero no pudo. (querer prêt = attempt, neg=refuse to)
He would not help me.
No quiso ayudarme. (notice querer neg=refuse to)
I had to work, but went to the movies
Tenía que trabajar pero fui al cine. (tener imp=obligation not necessarily fulfilled)
I had to work last night.
Tuve que trabajar anoche. (tener prêt=fulfilled obligation)
I had just eaten when you arrived.
Acababa de comer cuando llegaste. (imp acabar de=to have just done something)
I finished eating and left.
Acabé de comer y me fui. (prêt acabar de= to have finished something)
The prince saw that one of Cinderella’s shoes had fallen of while she was running away.
El príncipe vio que a Cinderella, se le había caído un zapato al salir corriendo. (the shoe fell before the prince saw it so use a perfect tense)
While she ran down the stairs, one of her shoes fell off. Later the prince found it and used it to find the mysterious stranger.
Mientras corría escaleras abajo, se le cayó un zapato. Después el príncipe lo encontró y lo usó para encontrar a la misteriosa desconocida.
Perfect tenses
are used to focus on the completion of an action in relation to a moment, present or past
We have returned from the museum.
Hemos regresado del museo. (Present perfect indicative refers to completed events in relation to the present.)
I still have not finished the book.
Todavía no he terminado el libro.
We will have finished by five.
hambremos terminado para las cinco( future perferct refers to a future event that will have been completed by a specific time or after another event in the future)
Where do you think Roberto went? I don’t know. I guess he went to the store.
Adónde crees que fue Roberto? No sé. Habrá ido a la tienda. (future perfect can express probability for completed actions in the past.
I had already finished eating when you called.
Ya había terminado de comer cuando llamaste.
They told me they would have finished by last Friday.
Me dijeron que habrían terminado para el Viernes pasado. (Conditional perfect- habrían terminado refers to an event that is the future in relation to another event in the past, also referring to an action in the past prior to another one in the past.
Why do you think that student was bored in class last semester? I don’t know. Maybe she had already read the same books for another class
Por qué piensas que esa estudiante se aburría en clase el semester pasado?- No sé. Ya habría leído los mismos libros para otra clase) (condicional perfect in a probability structure-referring to an action in the past prior to another one in the past. )
It surprises me that he arrived late.
Me sorprende que haya llegado tarde (Present perfect subjunctive- haya llegado
It surprised us that he had eaten before coming.
Nos sorprendió que hubiera cenado antes de venir. (Pluperfect subjunctive- hubiera cenado
We are going to Spain.
Vamos a España (ir/ venir never used in the progressive)
She is coming to dinner.
Viene a cenar (ir/venir never used in the progressive)
She was wearing a leather jacket.
Llevaba una chaqueta de cuero. (never use progressive for states or conditions)
I am wearing shoes.
Tengo zapatos puestos. (never use progressive for states or conditions)
I am sitting.
Estoy sentado. (position so don’t use progressive)
Two chairs were missing.
Faltaban dos sillas.
Your undershirt is showing.
Se te ve la camiseta.
I am working at the moment and will not be able to help you.
Estoy trabajando en este momento y no podré ayudarte. (estar +progressive is an ongoing action in the present)
We will eat soon
they are preparing dinner
We are doing it tomorrow.
Lo vamos a hacer mañana. (progressive is never used with the future like it often is in English)
Tommorow, Sunday, at seven in the evening, Asunción will be eating dinner. I know because she always does the same thing.
Mañana, Domingo, a las siete de la tarde, A estará cenando. Lo sé porque siempre hace lo mismo. (Future progressive refers to ongoing actions in the future or probability in the present)
What is Regina doing? I don’t know. She must be studying.
Qué hace Regina? Estará estudiando (Future progressive refers to ongoing actions in the future or probability in the present)
I was working when you called.
Estaba trabajando cuando me llamaste. (past progressive is an ongoing or finished action in the past.)
It was going to rain.
Iba llover. (past progressive never refers to future in the past like in English.)
Cecilia told me that the next day, Sunday, at seven in the evening, Susana would be eating dinner. She added that she knew it because she always did the same thing.
Celia me dijo que el día siguiente, Domingo, a las siete de la tarde, Susana estaría cenando. Añadió que lo sabía porque siempre hacía lo mismo. (Conditionalk present progressive refers to an ongoing action that is the future in the past, or probability for an ongoing action in the past)
Who knows. Maybe she was sleeping.
Quién sabe. Estaría durmiendo. (conditional progressive used to express probability for an ongoing action in the past.)
I doubt that my children are eating enough.
Dudo que mis hijos estén comiendo lo suficiente. (subjunctive present progressive -an ongoing action in the present colored by the subjunctive)
I could not believe they were still fighting.
No podía creer que estuvieran peleando todavía. (Subjunctive imperfect progressive- refers to an ongoing action in the past colored by the subjunctive)
My mother has been calling me every day.
Me madre ha estado llamándome todos los días (perfect progressive-focus on the completion of an ongoing action in relation to another moment, past, present or future)
By the time I get there, I will have been driving for twelve hours nonstop.
Para cuando llegue habré manejando durante doce horas sin parar. (indicative future perfect progressive)
I don’t know. She was probably working all night.
No sé .Habrá estado trabajando toda la noche. (indicative future perfect progressive can show probability when referring to a completed ongoing action in the past.)
When they finally let me in, I had been waiting for three hours.
Cuando por fin me dejaron entrar, había estado esperando tres horas. (Indicative pluperfect progressive)
The police would have been watching the house if you had asked them.
La policía habrá estado vigilando la casa si se lo hubieras pedido. (conditional perfect progressive.)
He must have been hiding the evidence.
Habría estado escondiendo las pruebas. (conditional perfect progressive.- can be used for probability, when referring to a completed ongoing action in the past prior to another.)
I doubt that he was doing what he said.
Dudo que haya estado hacienda lo que decía.
It surprised me that he had been making plans without telling me anything.
Me sorprendió que hubiera estado hacienda planes sin decirme nada. (subjunctive pluperfect progressive- use in subordinate clauses to refer to a completed ongoing action in a moment in the past prior to another one in the past.)
We are preparing ourselves little by little.
Vamos preparándonos poco a poco. (modal auxiliary ir and venir can be used with the present participle)
Van a darme la respuesta mañana.
They are going to give me the answer tommorow. (modal auxiliary. “Ir a”, tener que, poder, haber de, deber all use infinitive))
You have to tell us the truth.
Ustedes tienen que decirnos la verdad.
They must (probability) know the truth.
Han de saber la verdad.
You should eat more.
Deberías comer más. (modal auxiliary. “Ir a”, tener que, poder, haber de, deber all use infinitive))
Tomorrow we will go to the movies.
Mañana iremos al cine.
Tomorrow we are going to go to the movies.
Mañana vamos a ir al cine.
Tomorrow we are going to the movies.
Mañana vamos al cine.
This afternoon we are eating there.
Esta tarde vamos a comer/comemos aquí. (future cannot be expressed in Spanish with the progressive like in English.
He cannot come to the phone now: he is eating.
No puede venir al teléfono ahora
Could you help me please?
Podría ud. ayudarme, por favor? (conditional with modal auxilaries is just a softening of the indicative, like can you vs could you in english. Or want vs would like)
You should not say that.
No deberías decir eso.
I would like you to help me.
Quisiera que me ayudaras. (querer used in the imperfect subjunctive to express courtesy.
In that situation, I would be very frightened.
En esa situación, yo tendría mucho miedo. (hypothetical situation- use conditional)
In your place, I would not pay him because he was rude.
Yo en tu lugar no le pagaría por grosero. (hypothetical situation- use conditional)
If I could, I would buy that car.
Si pudiera, me compraría ese coche. (hypothetical –use conditional)
He said they would go to the movies today.
Dijo que irían al cine hoy. (future in the past , literal translation from English)
I wonder where Juan was.
Dónde estaría Juan? (probability in the past, use conditional)
I wonder where he had gone.
Adónde habría ido. (probability in the past)
Quién sera? (many choices)
I wonder who it is/ Who do you suppose it is/ Who can it be/ Who do you think it is/ Who in the world is it (Probability in the present- use future tense)
I wonder what they are doing.
Qué estarán hacienda? (future progressive used frequently with probability with words of action.)
He probably went to the moves.
Habrá ido al cine. (Probability in the preterite or present perfect
He probably was at the movies
Estaría en el cine. (imperfect probability of the past,use present conditional)
he was probably bathing
Estaría bañándose. (Probability-verbs of action-use conditional progressive)
He must have gone out early
Habría salido temprano. (Probability-pluperfect- use conditional perfect)
He must be home( 2 ways)
Probablamente está en casa/ Estará en casa.
He must be bathing ( 2 ways)
Probablamente está bañándose./ Estará bañándose.
He must have been home( 2 ways)
Probablamente estaba en casa. / Estaría en casa.
He must have been eating. ( 2 ways)
Probablamente estaba comiendo./ Estará comiendo.
He must have died( 2 ways)
Probablamente murió/ Habrá muerto.
He must have seen it( 2 ways)
Probablamente lo ha visto./ Lo habrá visto.
He must have returned. ( 2 ways)
Probablamente había regresado./ Habrá regresado.
I hope it rains.
Ojalá que llueva. (ojalá, quizá, and tal vez introduce sub clause)
Maybe he will come today.
Quizá venga hoy. (ojalá, quizá, and tal vez introduce sub clause)
Maybe it is too late.
Tal vez sea muy tarde. ((ojalá, quizá, and tal vez introduce sub clause)
It is obvious that you do not understand me.
Es obvio que no me entiendes. (nominal clause-fact or truth, so indicative)
It is true that I have traveled to Russia.
Es cierto que viajé a Rusia. (nominal clause-fact or truth, so indicative)
I see that you have enough money.
Veo que tienes bastante dinero . (nominal clause- fact or truth, so indicative)
I noticed that it was time to leave
Me fijé que era hora de irnos. . (nominal clause- fact or truth, so indicative)
I am delighted that they are coming.
Me encanta que vengan. (nominal clause-not fact or truth, so sub)
I doubt that they can do it.
Dudo que puedan hacerlo. (nominal clause-not fact or truth, so sub)
I want you to give me bread.
Quiero que me des pan. (nominal clause-not fact or truth, so sub)
I like them to participate a lot.
Me gusta que participen tanto (nominal clause-not fact or truth, so sub)
It seems like it is going to rain.
Parece me va a llover. (parecer/creer/pensar-no doubt in mind of speaker, use indicative)
I believe he can do it.
Creo que puede hacerlo. (parecer/creer/pensar-no doubt in mind of speaker, use indicative)
I think he will come.
Pienso que vendrá. (parecer/creer/pensar-no doubt in mind of speaker, use indicative)
It does not seem like it is going to rain.
No parece que vaya a llover. (parecer/creer/pensar- doubt in mind of speaker or parecer+adjective, use subjunctive)
Did he seem to be guilty?
Parecía que fuera culpable. (parecer/creer/pensar- doubt in mind of speaker or parecer+adjective, use subjunctive)
It seems incredible that they do that.
Parece increíble que hagan eso. (parecer/creer/pensar- doubt in mind of speaker or parecer+adjective, use subjunctive)
I don’t think he will come.
No pienso que venga. (parecer/creer/pensar- doubt in mind of speaker or parecer+adjective, use subjunctive)
I feel that I am going to sneeze.
Siento que voy a estornudar. (sentir in indicative)
I am sorry that you are ill.
Siento que estés enferma. (subjunctive changes meaning)
I know you are here.
Sé que estás aquí.
I am glad you are here.
Me alegro de que estés aquí.
I hope you can come.
Espero que puedas venir. (common verb of emotion-sub)
I regret that she is ill.
Lamento que esté enferma. (common verb of emotion-sub)
I am sorry you cannot go.
Siento que no puedas ir. (common verb ofemotion-sub)
I fear it is too late.
Temo que sea muy tarde. (common verb of emotion-sub)
I am afraid there will be a storm.
Tengo miedo de que haya una tormenta. (common verb of emotion-sub)
I am glad he is feeling better.
Me alegro de que se encuentre mejor. (common reflexive verb of emotion-sub)
He is ashamed that his father drinks.
Se averguenza de que su padre beba. (common reflexive verb of emotion-sub)
I am delighted that they play.
Me encanta que jueguen. (common flip verb of emotion-sub)
We would love you to come.
Nos encantaría que vinieran. (common flip verb of emotion-sub)
We are angry that they yell at us.
Nos enoja que nos griten. (common flip verb of emotion-sub)
It pleases him that they win.
Le gusta que ganen. (common flip verb of emotion-sub)
Does it annoy you that I make noise?
Te molesta que haga ruido? (common flip verb of emotion-sub)
They are surprised that we can do it.
Les sorprende que podamos hacerlo. (common flip verb of emotion-sub)
We are sorry we cannot go to the party.
Sentimos no poder ir a la fiesta. (same subject=infinitive)
I loved dancing with you.
Me encantó bailar contigo. (same subject=infinitive)
I enjoyed visiting my grandparents.
Me gustó visitar a mis abuelos.
I want you to sing with me.
Quiero que cantes conmigo. (verb of volition-sub)
Do you want me to bring you something to drink?
Desea que le traiga algo de beber? (verb of volition-sub)
She insists that they respect her.
Se empeña en que la respeten. (verb of volition-sub)
They insisted on our paying them.
Insistieron en que les pagáramos. (verb of volition-sub)
I need you to listen to me.
Necesito que me escuches. (verb of volition-sub)
He objected to their opening his suitcase.
Se oponía a que le abrieron la maleta. (verb of volition-sub)
I prefer that you speak to me in Spanish.
Prefiero que me hables en español. (verb of volition-sub)
We want spring to arrive.
Queremos que llegue la primavera. (verb of volition-sub)
We want to go alone.
Deseamos ir solos. (same subject=infinitive)
He insists on yelling.
Se empeña en gritar. (same subject=infinitive)
I refuse to vote for him.
Me opongo a votar por él. (same subject=infinitive)
He said he wanted to leave.
Dijo que quería irse. (decir/ escribir not a command so indicative.)
He told me to leave.
Me dijo que me fuera. (decir/ escribir command so subjunctive)
I let him pay
Dejé que el pagara. (verb of influence – subj)
He made them clean their room.
Hizo que limpiaran su cuarto. (verb of influence – subj)
I invite you to eat dinner with us.
La invito a que cene con nosotros. (verb of influence – subj)
He forces them to dance.
Los oblige a que bailan. (verb of influence – subj)
I advise you to be quiet.
Le aconsejo que se calle. (verb of influence with indirect object-subj)
I warn you to study.
Les advierto que estudien. (verb of influence with indirect object-subj)
Did they convince you to speak.
Te convencieron que hablaras? (verb of influence with indirect object-subj)
They demand that we close the door.
Exigen que cerremos la puerta. (verb of influence with indirect object-subj)
They prevented her from going to the dance.
Impidieron que fuera al baile.
He ordered you to be quiet.
Mandó que te callaras. (verb of influence with indirect object-subj)
They persuaded me to sing.
Me persuadieron a que cantara (persuadir a)
I forbid you from going out with them.
Te prohíbo que salgas con ellos. (verb of influence with indirect object-subj)
It is enough that you ask me for it.
Basta que me lo pidas. (subjunctive impersonal expression)
It is a good idea that you arrive early
Conviene que lleguen temprano. (subjunctive impersonal expression)
It does not matter that you do not have money.
No importa que no tengas dinero. (subjunctive impersonal expression)
He had better pay me soon.
Más vale que me pague pronto. (subjunctive impersonal expression)
I doubt that he can do it.
Dudo que pueda hacerlo. (expression of doubt)
She denies that he saw it.
Niega que él lo haya visto. (expression of doubt)
He denied that it was true.
Negó que fuera verdad. (expression of doubt)
It may be that it will rain today.
Puede ser que llueva hoy. (expression of doubt)
I do not say that you are guilty.
No digo que seas culpable. (expression of doubt)
He does not think you believe him.
No piensa que tú le creas. (expression of doubt)
It is not that I don’t want to, it is that I cannot.
No es que no quiera, es que no puedo. (expression of doubt)
That does not mean that he does not love you.
Eso no significa que no te quiera. (expression of doubt)
It is good that you know how to do it alone.
Es bueno que sepas hacerlo sola. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is true that he left early.
Es verdad que se fue temprano. (impersonal expression-indic)
It is true that it is cold.
Es cierto que hace frío. (impersonal exp-indic)
It was bad for you to tell him.
Fue malo que se lo dijeras. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is better that we leave early
Es mejor que nos vayamos temprano. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is odd that there is no mail.
Es curioso que no haya correo. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is unlikely to be hot in winter.
Es difícil que haga calor en invierno. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is likely that he will come today.
Es facíl que venga hoy. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is impossible that she told him.
Es impossible que se lo haya dicho. (impersonal expression-subj)
It is a wonder that he understands.
Es una maravilla que comprenda. (impersonal expression-subj)
I want to read a fun novel.
Quiero leer una novela divertida. (adjectival clause-indic)
I want to read the novel you gave me.
Quiero leer la novella que me regalaste. (adjectival clause-indic)
I want to read a novel that will make me laugh.
Quiero leer una novella que me haga reír. (adjectival clause-subj)
I have a house that has two floors.
Tengo una casa que tiene dos pisos. (antecedent exists so indic)
I want a house that has two floors.
Quiero una casa que tenga dos pisos. (antecedent doesn’t exist)
I know a woman who is an engineer.
Conozco a una mujer que es ingeniera. (ant exists)
Hay alguien aquí que está fumando una pipa.
There is someone here who is smoking a pipe. (ant exists)
Is there someone here who is a doctor?
Hay alguien aquí que sea doctor (ant existence uncertain.
I shall do what(ever) you tell me to do.
Haré lo que me digas. (use subjunctive when what means whatever it might be.
I shall do what(specifically) you told me to do.
Haré lo que me dijiste. (use indic when the ant is known by the speaker.)
The reporter you wanted to interview about the article called this morning.
Esta mañana llamó el reportero al que querías entrevistar sobre el artículo. (When a long adjectival clause complements the subject of the main verb, english places the subject+clause last.)
He left as soon as he could
Salió tan pronto como pudo.
I am doing it so that you will not have to.
Estoy haciéndolo para que no tengas que hacerlo. (action of sub clause has not happened yet)
He came before we called him.
Vino antes de que lo llamáramos. (action of sub clause has not happened yet)
My dog comes when I call him.
Mi perro viene cuando lo llamo.
My dog will come when I call him.
Mi perro vendrá cuando lo llame. (action of sub clause has not happened yet)
The play bored me so I left early
La obra me aburrió así que me fui temprano. (así que, porque, desde que almost always indicative)
I gave it to Luis because he asked me for it.
Se lo regale a Luis porque él me lo pidió. (así que, porque, desde que almost always indicative)
I have not seen him ever since he graduated.
No lo he visto desde que se graduó. (así que, porque, desde que almost always indicative)
Before going out, I put on my coat.
Antes de salir, me puse el abrigo. (antes que becomes antes when subject is the same.)
To prepare this, you need two eggs.
Para preparar esto, necesitas dos huevos. (sin que becomes sin when subj is the same.)
He left without saying goodbye.
Se fue sin despedirse. (sin que becomes sin when subject is the same)
After dinner, they played cards.
Después de cenar, jugaron a la baraja. (después de que becomes después de when subj is the same.)
I prepared the food so that you would eat it (2 ways)
Preparé la comida para que/a fin de que la comieras) (always subj)
We will go to the park unless it rains. (3)
Iremos al parque a menos que/salvo que/a no ser que llueva. (subj)
He said goodbye befote leaving.
Se despidió antes de irse. (inf)
I prepared everything before the guests arrived.
Lo preparé todo antes de que llegaran los invitados. (always subj)
I will prepare the food provided you wash the dishes(2)
Preparé la comida con tal de que/con tal que tú laves los platos.
I will go to the park provided I can go with you.
Iré al parque con tal de poder ir con ustedes.
I left without their hearing me.
Salí sin que ellos me oyeran.
I left without making any noise.
Salí sin hacer ruido.
I brought a coat in case it was cold.
Traje abrigo en caso de que hiciera frío. (always subj)
I will come when I can.
Vendré cuando pueda.
He came when he could.
Vino cuando pudo.
I will come as soon as I can.(3)
Vendré en apenas/ en cuanto/ tan pronto como pueda.
He came as soon as he could (3)
Vino en cuanto/apenas/ tan pronto como pudo.
He will come even if you do not invite him.(3)
Vino aunque/a pesar de que/aun cuando no lo invites.
He came although you did not invite him.
Vino aunque no lo invitaste.
I will arrive after you have left.
Llegaré después de que te hayas ido.
I arrived after you had left.
Llegó después de que tú te fuiste.
He called after leaving.
Llamó después de irse.
As long as you do not tell the truth, I will not listen to you.
Mientras no digas la verdad, no te escucharé.
I watched TV while they worked.
Yo miraba la television mientras ella trabajaba.
I will not leave until you tell me your secret.
No me iré hasta que me digas tu secreto.
I did not leave until he told me his secret.
No me fui hasta que me dijo su secreto.
I will not leave until I know the truth.
No me iré hasta saber la verdad.
I do not think it is raining at this moment.
No creo que esté lloviendo en este momento.
It bothered me that he should look at me that way.
Me molestaba que me mirara de esa manera.
I doubt that it will rain tomorrow.
Dudo que llueva mañana.
I doubt that he is ill.
Dudo que esté enfermo.
I doubt that he has eaten already.
Dudo que ya haya comido.
I doubt that it was green.
Dudo que estuviera verde.
I am surprised that he had not called before he came.
Me sorprende que no hubiera llamado antes de venir.
I doubted that the lecture would end soon.
Dudaba que se acabara pronto la conferencia.
I doubted that he was ill.
Dudaba que estuviera enfermo.
I do not want you to go to the movies.
No quiero que vayas al cine.
I have never told you so you would not get angry.
Nunca te lo ha dicho para que no te enojes.
I am surprised the apple is already ripe.
Me sorpende que la manzana ya esté madura.
I will find a house that has a greenhouse.
Encontraré una casa que tenga invernadero.
Do you know someone who has traveled to Chile?
Conoces a alguien que haya viajado a Chile?
I shall leave when I have finished.
Me iré cuando haya terminado.
Call her, unless you have already done so.
Llámala, a menos que ya lo hayas hecho.
It is strange that she did not know.
Es extraño que no supiera.
It surprises me that he was not able to do it.
Me sorprende que no pudiera hacerlo.
Carlota came to dinner last night.
Carlota vino a cenar a casa anoche.
Before coming, she had called to find out whether she could bring something.
Antes de venir, había llamado para averiguar si podía traer algo.
It surprises me that she had called before coming yesterday.
Me sorprende que hubiera llamado antes de venir ayer.
The employees complain that the bosses never asked their opinion before changing that rule.
Los empleados se quejan de que los patrones nunca les hubieran pedido su opinion antes de cambiar esa regla.
We are sorry that they had not recieved our message before they left on their trip.
Lamentamos que no hubieran recibido nuestro mensaje antes de salir de viaje.
The soothsayer know Raul’s past without anyone having told her before.
La adivina sabe el pasado de Raul sin que nadie se lo hubiera contado antes.
I doubted that my sister would come to visit me for Christmas.
Dudaba que mi herman viniera a visitarme para la Navidad.
My sister gave it to me in case I needed it later.
Mi hermana me lo dió en caso de que lo necesitara más tarde.
They wanted an insurance company that would pay its part in case of an accident.
Querían una compañía de seguros que cumpliera en caso de accidente.
Preferiría que te fueras.
I would prefer that you leave.
I was delighted that they arrived on time.
Me encantó que llegaran a tiempo.
The artist painted it without anyone seeing her.
La artista lo pintó sin que nadie la viera.
There was nothing there that she liked.
No había nada allí que le gustara.
He ran out in case they had not taken the gun away from the thief.
Salío corriendo en caso de que no le hubieran quitado la pistola al ladrón.
They were looking for a house that would have already had all the necessary repairs.
Buscaban una casa a la que ya le hubieran hecho todas las reparaciónes necesarias.
They had talked to each other without anyone having introduced them.
Se habían hablado sin que nadie los hubiera presentado.
The firemen would have arrived before the house had burned down if that accident had not happened on the highway.
Los bomberos habrían llegado antes de que la casa se hubiera quemado si ese accidente no hubiera ocurrido en la carretera.
Call her, unless you have already done so.
Llámala, a menos que ya lo hayas hecho.
I shall leave when I have finished.
Me iré cuando haya terminado.
I never met anyone who could sing that way as a child.
Nunca he conocido a nadie que cantara así de niño.
If it rains, I take my umbrella.
Si llueve, me llevo el paraguas.
If it rains, take your umbrella.
Si llueve, llévate el paraguas.
If it rained, I used to take my umbrella.
Si llovía, me llevaba el paraguas.
I don’t know if it will rain or not
No sé si lloverá o no.
It it were raining, I would not go out.
Si estuviera lloviendo, no saldría.
He greets you as if he had seen you before.
Te saluda como si te hubiera visto antes.
I hope our team won.
Ojalá que nuesto equipo haya ganado.
I wish it were not raining.
Ojalá que no estuviera lloviendo.
I wish he would come tomorrow.
Ojalá que pudiera venir mañana.
Walking is healthy.
Caminar es bueno para la salud.
Working so much on the computer harmed his eyes.
El trabajar tanto en la computadora le daño las ojos.
I am planning on buying this car.
Pienso comprar ese coche.
Do you wish to buy something?
Deseas comprar algo?
I succeded in convincing her.
Logré convencerla.
They do not let him play.
No lo dejan jugar. (dejar/ hacer use the direct object)
She made him recite the poem.
Lo hizo recitar el poema. (dejar/hacer use the direct object.)
They do not let him go out.
No le permiten salir. (permitir uses indirect object)
I advise you all to arrive early.
Le aconsejo llegar temprano.
They prevented him from speaking.
Le impidieron hablar.
Les prohíbe beber cerveza.
He forbids them to drink beer.
I beg you to listen to me.
Les ruego escucharme.
I saw her arrive an hour ago.
La vi llegar hace una hora.
I heard them sing last night.
Los oí cantar anoche.
He left without saying goodbye.
Se fue sin despedirse.
I did it to help you.
Lo hice para ayudarte.
That happens to you for eating so much.
Eso te pasa por comer tanto.
Before going out, he always eats breakfast.
Antes de salir, siempre desayuna.
I am tired of studying.
Estoy harto de estudiar.
It is necessary to be confident.
Hay que tener confianza.
He does not have anything to do
No tiene nada que hacer.
That sound is difficult to pronounce.
Ese sonido es difícil de pronunciar.
It is difficult to pronounce that sound.
Es difícil pronunciar ese sonido.
When they entered, they greeted everyone.
Al entrar, los saludaron a todos.
When I saw them, I greeted them.
Al verlos, los saludé.
No smoking.
No fumar.
No littering
Prohibido tirar basura.
Why get fat? With our system, you can lose weight effortlessly.
Por qué engordar? Con nuestro system puede usted adelgazar sin ningún esfuerzo.
I have heard it said.
Lo he oído decir.
I had the tests copied.
Hice copier las pruebas.
I ordered stamps to be bought.
Mandé comprar sellos.
You must have left them in the car.
Debes de haberlos dejado en el coche.
I think I told him that.
Creo habérselo dicho.
He left without having eaten anything.
Se fue sin haber comido nada.
He got tired of the movie after having seen it three times.
Se cansó de la película después de haberla visto tres veces.
He entered yelling.
Entró gritando.
Being a simple person, he never thought that other would not be honest.
Siendo una persona sencilla, nunca pensó que otros no fueran honrados.
With the parents at home, he will not call.
Estando los padres en casa, él no llamará.
He prepared dinner while he listened to the radio (2)
Preparó la cena escuchando/mientras escuchaba el radio.
By explaining it clearly to them in advance, there will be no ambiguity.
Explicándoselo claramente de antemano, no habrá ambiguedad.
My room is to the left of the entrance.
Mi cuarto se encuentra entrando a la izquierda.
That store is beyond the museum.
Esa tienda está pasando el museo.
Beto misses his parents.
A Beto le hacen falta sus padres.
You will like Juanita.
Te caerá bien Juanita.
You are missing an excercise.
Te falta un ejercicio (always put the subject after the verb with faltar, sobrar, and quedar)
We had food left over.
No sobró comida. (always put the subject after the verb with faltar, sobrar, and quedar)
I like my friends.
Mis amigos me caen bien.
I think your parents like me.
Creo que les caigo bien a tus padres.
I do not like my sister’s boyfriend.
El novio de mi hermana me cae mal/ no me cae bien.
I like my history professor. He is excellent and he always comes prepared.
Me gusta mi professor de historia. Es excelente, y siempre viene preparado.
I like my history profesor. He is very nice.
Me cae bien mi professor de historia. Es muy simpatico.
I am attracted to Silvia.
I am attracted to Silvia.
Dinner disagreed with her.
Le cayó muy mal la cena.
This deck of cards is missing two cards.
A esta baraja le faltan dos cartas.
I miss you.
Me haces falta.
You need a coat.
Te hace falta un abrigo.
We have five minutes left.
Nos quedan cinco minutos.
They had a lot of food left over.
Les sobró mucha comida.
Five minutes are enough for me.
Me bastan cinco minutos.
That time is not convenient for us.
No nos conviene esa hora.
Does you leg hurt?
Te duele la pierna?
Things like that always happen to me.
Siempre me pasan cosas así.
Blue suits you.
Te sienta bien el azul.
We agreed to meet in the plaza at two o’clock.
Convinimos en encontrarnos en la plaza a las dos.
She is interested in politics.
Ella se interesa en la política.
You look like your mother.
Tú te pareces a tu mama.
The mother sat her child on the chair.
La mamá sentó al niño en la silla.
The tourists touched everything.
Los turistas lo tocaban todo.
I look at myself in the mirror.
Me miro en el espejo.
I fell asleep at seven.
Me dormí a las siete.
I slept seven hours.
Dormí siete horas.
I was asleep.
Estaba dormido.
I was falling asleep when you called.
Me estaba dormiendo cuando llamaste.
He sat down in front of us.
Se sentó frente a nosotros.
He is sitting in front of us.
Está sentado frente a nosotros.
I fell in love with him.
Me enamoré de él.
I am in love with him.
Estoy enamorado de él.
The soldiers marched for an hour.
Los soldados marcharon por una hora.
The guests left.
Los invitados se marcharon/ se fueron.
Did you eat all of your breakfast?
Te comiste todo el desayuno?
To be proud
Become (undesired state)
volverse +adj
Comb(one’s hair)
peinarse (el pelo)
To interfere with someone, tease
meterse con alguien
Lie down, go to bed.
I do it/ He said he did it.
Lo hago/ Dijo que lo hacía.
He wants me to go/ He said he wants me to go.
Quiere que vaya/ Dijo que quería que fuera.
They have seen us/They said they have seen us.
Nos han visto/ Dijeron que nos habían visto.
I doubt they saw it./ He said that he doubted he had seen it.
Dudo que lo hayan visto./ Dijo que dudaba que lo hubieran visto.
I saw it/ He said that he had seen it.
Lo vi/ Dijo que lo había visto.
I will go tomorrow./ He said that he would go the next day.
Iré mañana./ Dijo que iría al día siguente.
By monday I will have finished/ He said that by monday he would have finished.
Dijo que para el lunes habría acabado.
Eat your fruit./ She told me to eat the fruit.
Cómete la fruta/ Me dijo que te comiera la fruta.
We were going to eat. They said..
Dijeron que iban a comer.
We had already eaten. They said
Contesté que ya habíamos comido.
I doubt you were lying to me. He said he doubted I was lying to him.
Me dijo que dudaba que le estuviera mintiendo.
If I were rich, I would buy it.
He thought
We are going to visit out parents. They said
Dijeron que iban a visitar a sus padres.
I gave you your book. She told him
Ella le dijo que le había dado su libro.
I am not going with you. She told me
Ella me dijo que no iba conmigo.
I do not know what Rafael saw.
No sé qué vio Rafael.
He admitted that he had seen her the week before.
Admitió que la había visto al semana anterior.
He promised me he would call me the following week.
Me prometió que llamaría la próxima semana.
He asked me if I wanted to go to the movies with him.
Me preguntó si quería ir al cine con él.
I wonder when the guests are coming.
Me pregunto cuándo vienen los invitados.
I cannot imagine where my keys are.
No puedo imaginar dónde están mis llaves.
It’s windy
Hace viento.
He is tall, slender.
Es alto, delgado.
To work like that is to go mad.
Trabajar así es volverse loco.
The surface is cold.
La superficie está fría.
We are tired of so much work.
Estamos hartos de tanto trabajo.
I am happy to see you.
Estoy contenta de verte.
This apple is so good!
Qué buena está esta manzana!
When Hill they be back?
Cuándo estarán de vuelta?
I have been studying for three hours.(2)
Hace tres horas que studio./ Llevo tres horas estudiando.
We have been here three hours(2).
Hace tres horas que estamos aquí/ Llevamos tres horas aquí.
I had been studying for three hours (2)
Hacía tres horas estudiaba/ Llevaba tres horas estudiando.
We have not slept for two nights (2)
Hace dos noches que no dormimos./ Llevamos dos noches sin dormir.
We had been there for three hours(2)
Hacía tres horas que estábamos allá/ Llevábamos tres horas allá.
We had not been to the movies in a long time(2)
Hacía mucho tiempo que no ibamos al cine./ Llevábamos mucho tiempo sin ir al cine.
He left three years ago.
Hace tres años que se fue.
He had left three years ago.
Hacía tres años que se había ido.
What were you doing three hours ago?
Qué estabas haciendo hace dos horas?
I was bathing two hours ago.
Me estaba bañando hace tres horas.
I have been planning this for several years now.
Vengo planeando esto desde hace ya various años. (modal auxiliary ir and venir can be used with the present participle)
We cannot swim.
No podemos nadar. (modal auxiliary. “Ir a”, tener que, poder, haber de, deber all use infinitive))
I don’t believe he can do it.
No creo que pueda hacerlo. (parecer/creer/pensar- doubt in mind of speaker or parecer+adjective, use subjunctive)
I doubted that he had told that lie.
Dudaba que hubiera dicho esa mentira.
Tell Natalia to call me.
Dile a Natalia que me llame.
She is ashamed that her parents never used to pay taxes.
Se averguenza de que sus padres nunca pagaran impuestos.
If I had studied more, I would have passed the exam.
Si hubiera estudiado más, habría pasado el examen.
If it had not rained last night, everything would be dry today.
Si no hubiera llovido anoche, hoy todo estaría seco.
I dont know how to do this.
No sé hacer eso.
It is my turn to play.
A mí me toca jugar.