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8 Cards in this Set

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What are the uses of soil mapping?

Enables farmers and other land owners to understand the properties of soils in relation to their parent materials and topography and how the different properties may limit their use.

What are the different deposits of South East England?

Tertiary - Neogene (Miocene and Pilocene) and Palaeogene (Eocene and Oligocene) deposits, e.g., Reading Beds (sand and clays), Bagshot beds (sands) and London clay (clays and snady clays)


Cretaceous e.g., Upper chalk, middle and lower chalk (limestones), Upper greensand (siltstones, sandstones, clays), Gault (clays), Lower greensand (sands) and Weald clay (clays and other).

What Quaternary deposits are there?

-Glacial till.


-River Terrace and Glaciofluvial drift (variable stony, sandy and loamy)


-Plateau drift and clay with flints (sility, loamy over clayey).


-Alluvium (clayey, sility and loamy).


-Colluvium (sility and loamy).


-Peat.

Define the soil survey of England and Wales classification?

-10 major soil groups is the presence of absence of major diagnostic horizons.


-43 soil groups.


-109 soil sub-groups.


-Soil series are broad types of parent material and textural groups and distinctive mineralogy.



Define Ground-Water Gley.

Seasonally waterlogged soils affected by shallow fluctuating ground-water table. They are developed mainly within or over permeable material and have prominent mottled or greyish coloured horizons within 40cm depth. Most occupy low-lying or depressional sites.

Define Brown soils.

With dominantly brownish or reddish subsoils and no prominent mottling or greyish colours above 40 cm depth. They are developed mainly on permeable materials at elevations below about 300m and are used mostly for agricultural use.

How is land classified for agriculture?

-Ranked into 7 classes.


-Done on the basis of its potential productivity and cropping flexibility.


-Further determined by physical characteristics such as (soil, climate, relief, wetness and erosion)


-Class 1 = minimum limitations and Class 7 = maximum limitations.

How is droughtiness assessed?

Average annual soil moisture balance (MB) = AP-MD




AP = Available water capacity of soil profile to rooting depth (mm water).


MD = Balance between rainfall and potential evaporation during growing season.




AP = soil layer depth (mm) x avail.water (mm) x fine earth (mm).