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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A scratch or scrape.
A bubble of air in the bloodstream
air embolus
The tearing away or tearing off of a piece of flap of skin or other soft tissue. This term also may be used for an eye pulled from its socket or a tooth dislodged from its socket.
Any material used to hold a dressing in place.
An internal injury with no open pathway from the outside
closed wound
A bruise
An injury caused when force is transmitted from the body's exterior to its internal structures. Bones can be broken muscles, nerves, and tissues damaged; and internal organs ruptured, causing internal bleeding
crush injury
The inner (second) layer of the skin found beneath the epidermis. It is rich is blood vessels and nerves.
The surgical removal or traumatic severing of a body part, usually an extremity
Any material (preferably sterile) used to cover a wound that will help control bleeding and help prevent additional contamination.
The outer layer of the skin.
An intestine or other internal organ protruding through a wound in the abdomen.
Fracture of two or more adjacent ribs in two or more places that allows for free movement of the fractured segment.
flail chest
A burn in which all the layers of the skin are damaged. There are usually areas that are charred black or areas that are dry and white. Also called a third-degree burn.
full thickness burn
A swelling caused by the collection of blood under the skin or in damaged tissues as a result of an injured or broken blood vessel.
A cut.
Any dressing that forms an airtight seal.
occlusive dressing
An injury in which the skin is interrupted, exposing the tissue beneath.
open wound
Movement of ribs in a flail segment that is opposite to the direction of movement of te rest of the chest cavity.
paradoxical motion
A burn in which the epidermis (first layer of skin) is burned through and the dermis (second layer) is damaged. Burns of this type cause reddening, blistering, and a mottled appearance. Also called a second-degree burn.
partial thickness burn
Air in the chest cavity
An open wound that tears through the skin and destroys underlying tissues.
puncture wound
A shallow or deep wound
penetrating puncture wound
A wound that has both an entrance and an exit wound
perforating puncture wound
A method for estimating the extent of a burn.
rule of nines
A method for estimating the extent of a burn. The palm of the patient's hand, which equals about 1 percent of the body's surface area, is compared with the patient's burn to estimate its size.
rule of palm
The layers of fat and soft tissues found below the dermis.
subcutaneous layers
An open chest wound in which air is "sucked" into the chest cavity.
sucking chest wound
A burn that involves only the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin. It is characterized by reddening of the skin and perhaps some swelling. An example is a sun burn. Also called a first-degree burn.
superficial burn
A type of pneumothorax in which air that enters the chest cavity is prevented from escaping.
tension pneumothorax
A bulky dressing
universal dressing
Which parts of the adult body account for 9% each in the rule of nines?
1. head and neck
2. each upper extremity
3. chest
4. abdomen
5. upper back
6. lower back and buttocks
7. front of each lower extremity
8. back of each lower extremity
List the types of closed soft tissue injuries.
1. Contusion
2. Hematoma
3. Crush injuries
List the types of open soft tissue injuries.
1. Abrasions
2. Lacerations
3. Punctures
4. Avulsions
5. Amputations
6. Crush injuries
How is the rule of nines applied to the adult body?
For an adult, each of the following areas represents 9 percent of the body surface: the head and neck, each upper extremity, the chest, the abdomen, the upper back, the lower back and buttocks, the front of each lower extremity, and the back of each lower extremity. The remaining 1 percent is assigned to the gential region.
What are the signs of abdominal injury?
1. pain, cramps, nausea, weakness, thirst
2. obvious laceration and puncture wounds inthe lower extremities
3. indications of blunt trauma
4. indications of developing shock
5. coughing up or vomiting blood
6. rigid and/or tender abdomen
7. distended abdomen
8. the patient tries to lie very still with legs drawn up
What are the signs and symptoms of an electrical injury?
1. burns where energy enters and exits
2. paralysis
3. respiratory difficulties or respiratory arrest
4. irregular heartbeat or cardiac arrest
5. muscle tenderness
6. hypertenison/hypotension with signs of shock
7. alert mental status
8. visual difficulties
9. fractured bones and dislocations from severe muscle contractions or from falling
10. seizures
Where does the phrenic nerve originate from?
the fourth cervical nerve
What is the pleural cavity?
The body cavity that surrounds the lungs.
Name the 8 soft tissues of the body.
1. Skin
2. Fatty tissues
3. Muscles
4. Blood vessels
5. Fibrous tissues
6. Membrances
7. Glands
8. Nerves
What are the 5 functions of the skin?
1. Protection
2. Water balance
3. Temperature regulation
4. Excretion (sweat)
5. Shock (impact) absorption
A way of estimating the extent of a burn through use of the patient's hand is called
rule of palm
The preferred bandage for use in the field is the ______ _____ ________ _______ roller bandage.
self adhering form fitting
If dry lime is the burn agent, do not wash the burn with ________
All burns normally classified as moderate should be reclassified as _______ in a person less than 5 or more than 55 years of age
Describe the emergency medical care of the patient with a closed soft-tissue injury.
1. Apply BSI
2. Manage ABC’s
3. Apply high concentration of oxygen by NRB
4. Manage as if there is internal bleeding and provide care for shock
5. Splint extremities that are painful, swollen, or deformed
6. Stay alert for the patient to vomit
7. Continue to monitor for shock and transport asap
Describe the general emergency medical care of the patient with a open soft-tissue injury.
1. Expose the wound
2. Clean the wound surface
3. Control bleeding
4. Provide care for shock including oxygen therapy
5. Apply dressing
6. Bandage the dressing in place after the bleeding is controlled
7. Keep the patient lying still
8. Reassure the patient
What are 3 ways the chest can be injuried?
1. Blunt trauma
2. Penetrating objects
3. Compression
What internal damage can occur from a blunt trauma chest injury?
1. Fracture to the ribs, the sternum, and the costal (rib) cartilages
2. Sections of the chest can collapse
3. The lungs and airway can be damaged
4. The aorta and venae cavae and the heart can be seriously damaged
What internal damage can occur from a penetrating objects chest injury?
1. Internal organs can be damaged
2. Respiration can be impaired
What internal damage can occur from a chest compression injury?
1. The heart can be severly squeezed
2. The lungs could rupture
3. The sternum and ribs can be fractured
What are the signs of a sucking chest wound?
1. The patient has an open wound to the chest
2. There may or may not be a sucking sound from the wound
3. The patient may be gasping for air
What is the emergency care for sucking chest wound?
1. Maintain an open airway
2. Apply an occlusive dressing to seal the wound
3. Administer high concentration oxygen
4. Care for shock
5. ALS upgrade, if faster
6. Transport asap
Dressing taped in place with one side unsealed, or a three-sided dressing is called a(n)
occlusive dressing
A condition in which the chest cavity fills with blood
A condition in which the chest cavity fills with blood and air
What causes hemothorax?
Lacerations within the chest cavity from penetrating objects or fracture ribs
What effect can hemothorax and hemopneumothorax have on the body?
1. A collapsed lung
2. Loss of blood leading to shock
What casues traumatic asphyxia (as-FIK-see-uh)?
A sudden compression of the chest
How does traumatic asphyxia impact the body internally?
1. The sternum and the ribs put severe pressure on the heart and lungs
2. Blood is forced from the right artium up into the jugular veins in the neck
3. The pressure of this blood will result in blood vessels rupturing, causing bruising of the face and neck
What are the signs of traumatic asphyxia?
1. Distended neck veins
2. Head, neck, and shoulders appearing red, purple, or blue
3. Eyes may be bloodshot and bulging
4. Tongue and lips may appear swollen and blue
5. Chest deformity may be present
Name the various types of eye injuries.
1. Chemical burns
2. Thermal burns
3. Puncture wound
4. Impaled objects
Infrared rays, eclipse light, direct sunlight, and laser burns can damage the eye.and are called:
Thermal eye burns
How do you treat chemical burns to eyes?
Chemical eye burns:

1. Flush the eye with clean water.
2. Irrigate the eye for at least 15 minutes

With an alkali or strong acid burn:
1. Irrigate the eye for about 20 minutes.

In all cases, bandage the eye with dry dressing.
A condition that results from an injury to the heart which causes blood to flow into the surrounding pericardial sac.
cardiac tamponade
What are the signs of cardiac tamponade?
1. Distended neck veins
2. Very weak pulse
3. Low blood pressure
4. Steadily decreasing pulse pressure
What is pulse pressure?
Pulse pressure = systolic - diastolic readings
What are the signs of aortic injury or dissection?
1. Tearing chest pain radiating to the back
2. Differences in pulse or blood pressure between right and left extremities or between arms and legs
3. Palpable pulsating mass
4. Cardiac arrest
What are the signs of pneumothorax or tension pneumothorax?
1. Increasing respiratory difficulty
2. Indications of developing shock, including rapid, weak,pulse; cyanosis, narrowing pulse pressure; and low blood pressure due to reduced cardiac output
3. Distended neck
4. Tracheal deviation to the uninjured side ( a late sign and difficult to observe)
5. Uneven chest wall movement
6. Reduction breath sounds heard in the affected side of the chest
Which injuries occur within the chest?
1. Pneumothorax
2. Tension pneumothorax
3. Hemothorax
4. Hemopneumothorax
5. Traumatic asphyxia
6. Cardiac tamponade
7. Aortic injury or dissection
All injuries within the chest are treated the same. Treatment includes:
1. Maintain an open airway. Be prepared to suction
2. Administer high concentration oxygen
3. Follow local protocols for open wound dressing
4. Care for shock
5, Transport asap
6. ALS upgrade if faster and to get the benefit of prehospital chest depression abilities
What are the signs and symptoms of a blowout fracture?
Double vision
____ occurs when the lung collapes as a result of air that has entered the chest cavity
What are the patient care steps for closed and open abdominal injury?
1. Stay alert for vomiting and keep airway open
2. Place patient on back, legs flexed at knees to reduce pain
3. Administer high concentration oxygen
4. Care for shock
5. Apply PASG
6. Give nothing to patient by mouth
7. Constantly monitor vital signs
8. Transport asap
What are the additional patient care steps for open abdominal injury?
1. Control external bleeding and dress all open wounds
2. Do not touch or replace any exposed organs
3. Apply a wet sterile dressing
4. Do not remove impaled objects
What are the rules for general bandaging?
1. Do not bandage too tightly
2. Do not bandage too loosely
3. Do not leave loose ends
4. Do not cover the tips of fingers or toes
5. Cover all edges of the dressing
What are the steps for dressing a wound?
1. Apply BSI
2. Expose the wound
3. Use sterile or very clean materials
4. Cover the entire wound
5. Control bleeding
6. Do not remove dressings
What is the patient care for electrical injuries?
1. Provide airway
2. Provide CPR and AED
3. Care for shock and administer high concentrated oxygen
4. Care for spinal and head injuries, and severe fractures
5. Look for contact source and contact with a ground
6. Cool burn areas like cooling flame brns
7. Apply dry sterile dressing
8. Transport asap
Burns are classified in 3 ways:
1. By agent and source
2. By depth
3. By severity
List the burn agents and their sources?
1. Thermal; Flame, radiation, excessive heat from fire, steam, hot liquids, hot objects
2. Chemicals; Various acids, bases, caustics
3. Electricity; Alternating current, direct current, lightening
4. Light (eyes); Intense light sources, ultraviolet light
5. Radiation; Nuclear sources, ultraviolet light
How are burns classified by depth?
1. Superficial burn
2. Partial thickness burn
3. Full thickness burn
To determine the severity of a burn, you can estimate the burn size by using one of two rules:
1. Rule of nines
2. Rules of palm
What are the three classifications of burn severity?
1. Minor Burns
2. Moderate Burns
3. Critical Burns