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65 Cards in this Set

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Sociology
Is the scientific study of social behavior and human groups.
Sociology focuses on
The influence of social relationships on people's attitudes. How societies are created and changed.
Sociological Imagination
Is the awareness between the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past.
What is a key element of sociological imagination?
Is the ability to view one's own society as an outsider would, than from the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases.
Sociological Theory
Is a set of statements that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior.
What do effective theories need?
They need to have explanatory and predictive power.
Early Thinkers: Auguste Comte
(1798 - 1857) The father of sociology. Believed that theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve French society.
Early Thinkers: Harriet Martineau
(1802 - 1876) Emphasized the impact that economy, law, trade, health, and population on social problems. Wrote the first book on sociological methods.
Early Thinkers: Herbert Spencer
(1820 - 1903) Did not feel the need to improve or correct society, but hoped to understand it better. Applied the concept of evolution to explain how species change, or evolve over time.
Microsociology:
Looking at individual interactions. Usually an experimental group.
Macrosociology:
Larger scale influences in a large society. For example, Emile Durkheim's study on religion and suicide.
Functionalist Perspective:
Emphasizes the way that the parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability. Does it make a contribution?
Dysfunction:
Refers to an element or process of society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability.
Manifest Functions:
Open, Stated, and intended functions Recognized consequences of an aspect of society. For example, A university's role in academic excellence.
Latent Functions:
More hidden, not widely known functions. Unintended. For example, people seeking martial partners at college.
Conflict Perspectives:
Assumes social behavior is best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups.
Example of Conflict Perspectives:
Form of labor negotiations, party politics, or power over resources like money and housing.
The Marxist View:
Conflict is apart of everyday life in all societies.
Examples of the Marxist View:
Women and men, Cities and suburbs, and Whites and Blacks.
Feminist Perspective:
Views inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization.
Example of Feminist Perspective:
Sports that reinforce gender roles (Men are more likely to use steroids, and women are more likely to excessive dieting.)
Interactionist Perspective:
Generalize about everyday forms of social interactions to understand society as a whole.
Example of Interactionist Perspective:
Social interaction between a driver and passenger.
Which perspective should a sociologist use in studying human behavior - functionalist, conflict, interactionist, feminist?
All of them. Sociologists gain broadcast understanding on all major perspectives, noting where they overlap and differ. Each perspective offers unique insight.
Scientific method:
Systematic organized series of steps in researching a problem.
Steps for scientific method: #1
Defining the problem - What you hope to investigate.
Steps for scientific method: #2
Review the Literature - avoiding mistakes already made, learn helpful techniques, and refining the problem.
Steps for scientific method:#3
Formulating the hypothesis - Has to be testable variables that suggests how one aspect of human behavior affects or influences another.
What are examples of variables in sociology studies?
Income, religion, occupation, and gender.
What is the variable called that is predicted to cause or influence another?
Independent Variables
What is it called when its actions depends on the influence of something else?
A dependent variable
Casual Logic:
Relationship between a condition or variable, and a particular consequence leading to the other.
Example of Casual Logic:
Being less apart of society (the independent variable) may be directly related to or produce a greater chance of suicide (the dependent variable).
a ______ exists when a change in one variable coincides with a change in another.
Correlation
Steps for scientific method:#4
Collecting and analyzing data.
Sample:
A selection from a larger population that is statistically representative of that population.
What kind of sample do social scientist use most often?
A random sample, every member of an entire population has the same chance of being selected.
Validity:
Refers to the degree to which a measure or scale truly reflects the phenomenon under study.
Reliability:
Refers to the extent to which a measure produces consistent results.
What is one problem of reliability?
Some people may not disclose accurate information.
Steps for scientific method: #5
Developing your conclusion - ends a specific part of an investigation, but generates ideas for future study.
What is a detailed plan or method to get data scientifically?
Research Design
Surveys are an example of ________.
Quantitative Research, in which scientists collect and report data primarily in numerical form. It is great for large samples.
What is the problem with quantitative research?
It doesn't offer great depth and detail on the topic.
Researchers also use __________, which relies on what scientists see in field and small settings.
Qualitative research
What is the most common form of qualitative research?
Ethnography - is the effort to describe an entire social setting through extended systematic observation.
What is the basic technique of ethnography?
Observation - closely watching a group.
What is the approach where sociologists join a group for a period, to get a sense of how it operates?
Participant Observation
Experiment:
Artificially made situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables.
The _____ is exposed to an independents variable, the ____ is not.
The experimental group and the control group
Hawthorne effect:
The unintended influence of observers or experiments on subjects of research, who don't do their normal behavior because they realize they are under observation.
Secondary analysis:
Research techniques that make use of previously collected and publicly accessible information and data. EX: census data, crime, birth,marriage statistics
Content analysis:
Systematic coding and objective recording of data guided by some rationale. Ex: newspapers, radio, scripts
Sociologists must also abide by certain specific standards in conducting research, called a _________.
Code of ethics
ASA Code of Ethics #1
Maintain objectivity and integrity in research.
ASA Code of Ethics #2
Respect the subject's right to privacy and dignity.
ASA Code of Ethics#3
Protect subject's from personal harm.
ASA Code of Ethics#4
Preserve confidentiality
ASA Code of Ethics#5
Seek informed consent.
ASA Code of Ethics#6
Acknowledge research collaboration and assistance.
ASA Code of Ethics#7
Disclose all sources of finical support.
Applied Sociology
The application of sociological knowledge to real-world social problems.
Public sociology
Encouraging scholars to engage a broader audience in bringing about positive outcomes.
Clinical Sociology:
Dedicated to altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions (like reorganization of a medical center.)
Basic Sociology:
Seeks more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena.