Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell phones
Ideas of how people should act.
C Wright Mills
Made famous the term "sociological imagination" People often believe that their private lives can be explained mainly in terms of their personal successes and failures.
Max Weber
German Historian, Pioneer. He saw and described the rise of modern science and modern ways of doing business.
rational choice model
Prompts us to look at patterns of behavior to see how they conform to and depart from normal expectations of personal profit and loss
A statement that expresses an informed "educated guess" regarding the possible relationship between two or more phenomenia.
Characteristics of individuals, groups, or entire societies that can vary from one case to another.
dependent variable


independent variable
The variable we are trying to explain.
A factor that the researcher believes causes changes in the dependent variable.
Participant Observation
A form of field observation in which the observer participates to some degree in the lives of the people being observed.
Unobtrusive Measures
Observational techniques that measure behavior but intrude as little as possible into actual social settings.
Controlled Experiment


Field Experiment
An experimental situation in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable in order to observe and measure changes in a dependent variable.
An experimental situation in which the researcher observes and studies subjects in their natural setting.
Sample of respondents drawn from a specific population, respond to questions in an interview or questionaire.
Durkheins' study of suicide
People who were less involved with families were more likely; the more industrialized were more likely to commit suicide.
experimental group

control group
the subjects who are exposed to a change in the independent variable.
Do not experience a change in the independent variable.
Hawthorne Effect
Unintended effect that results from the attention given to subjects in an experimental situation.

Experiment on conformity.

Majority can have an extremely powerful influence on that individual.

Everyone has an equal chance of being selected to answer the survey questions.
Do not all have the same probability of being included.
A set of interrelated concepts that seeks to explain the causes of an observable phenomenon.
culture shock
Personal disorientation that happens when your outside your cultural settings.
-Not able to understand the cultural frameworks that others inhabit.
- Narrow view of possibilities.
- Think your culture is better.
cultural relativism
Understanding culture on its own terms, history and contents. Not comparing to your own.
Part of major culture, they set themselves apart, maintain certain aspects; rituals, values, language.
Ex. rodeo - American West -cowboy code-honesty
All the modes of thoughts and behaviors handed down from one generation to another. 3 dimensions; ideas, norms, material culture.
Steps in Sociological Reseach
1. Deciding on the problem (subject or topic)
2. Reviewing the Literature
3. Formulating Research Questions
4. Selecting a method
5. Analyzing data
The ability of individuals or groups to change the behaviors of others.
Ideas about how society should act or behave. Ex. Who sets where, who takes out the trash.
Socially shared ideas about what is important.

social control
Norms that are included in a society's offical written codes of behavior.
Set of rules and understandings that control the behavior of individuals and groups in a culture.
Describes the quality of life of the people involved.
Systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups and society. Based on research. Studies human social ineteraction.
Sociological Imagination
A quality of mind that provides an understanding of ourselves within the context of the larger society.
The rules and guidelines followed in sociological research.
Auguste Comte
Coined the term sociology and launched the positivic approach to the study of sociology.
empirical study
Verifiable and tested.
Emile Durkheim
-Modern socialization
-Wrestled with modernization
-Workplace was important
-Founded Scientific Sociology in France
-Did study on suicide
Karl Marx
German philosopher, developed the social and economic theories that would have a major influence on sociological thought. Famous for his study on capitalism.
Harriet Martineau
1st woman to contribute to sociology. Wrote on capitalism and modernity. Social reformer- wrote on women and children in British factories.


1. Family or few people

2. In communities or businesses

3. Major structures and institutions of study.
Some resources that one group has that another one wants. Ex. laborers vs factory owners


1. Examine how society works together. Individuals are characterized by roles.
2. Economic inequality; as well as differences in values.
3. Individuals & small groups what are their beliefs?


1. Punishment or rewards for adhering to or violating norms.
2. The most strongly sanctioned norms.
3. Far less strongly sanctioned.
cultural evolution
The process by which successful cultural adaptions are passed down from one generation to the next.
Social Darwinism
The notion that people who are more successful at adapting to the environment in which they find themselves are more likely to survive and to have children who will also be successful.
The hypothesis that all human behavior is determined by genetic factors
linguistic-relativity hypothesis
The belief that language determines the possibilities for thought and action in my given culture.
The process by which the members of a civilization incorporate norms and values from other cultures into their own.
The process by which culturally distinct groups in a larger civilization adopt the norms, values, and language of the host civilization and are able to gain equal statuses in its groups and institutions.
Any collection of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations regarding one another's behavior.
A more or less stable structure of statuses and roles devoted to meeting the basic needs of people in a society.
A subculture that challenges the accepted norms and values of the larger society and establishes an alternative lifestyle.
Occurs throughout life as an individual learns new norms in new groups and situations.
primary socialization
All the ways in which the newborn individual is molded into a social being, occurs within the family and other intimate groups in the childs social environment.
secondary socialization
Occurs in later childhood and adolescence, when the child enters school and comes under the influence of adults and peers outside the household and immediate family.
Nature and Nurture
To what extent does the development of the person depend on genetic factors, and to what extent does it depend on learning?
First social scientist to develop a theory that addressed both the "nature and nurture" aspects of human existence.
feral children & effects
A child reared outside human society. The children could learn, but were very slow. Studies reveal a need for love in the early childhood.
generlaized other
A composite of all the roles of all the participants in the game.
significant others
Any person who is important to an individual.
agents of socialization
Individuals such as parents, teachers, who socialize others.
anticipatory socialization
Prepares an individual for a role that he or she is likely to assume later in life.
Intense, deliberate socialization designed to change major beliefs and behaviors.
peer groups and effects of them
An interacting group of people of about the same age that has a significant influence on the norms and values of its members. Adolescents acquire much of their identity from their peers.
primary groups
characterized by intimate, face to face associations.
secondary groups
members have a shared goal or purpose but are not bound together by strong emotional ties.
A group consisting of two people.
A group consisting of three people.
A set of primary and secondary groups in which the individual carries out important life functions.
in group

out group
Group to which an individual has a feeling of allegiance; usually, but not always, a primary group.
Group to which an individual does not have a feeling of allegiance; may be in competiton or conflict with the in group.
reference group
A group that an individual uses as a frame of reference for self-evalutaion and attitude formation.
The study of underlying rules of behavior that guide group interaction.
Desire to impress those who may be watching.
impression management
The strategies one uses to "set a stage" for one's own purposes.
informal organization
A group whose norms and statuses are generally agreed upon but are not set down in writing.
formal organization
A group that has an explicit,often written, set of norms, statuses, and roles that specify each members relationships to the others and the conditions under which those relationships hold.
voluntary association
A formal organization whose members pursue shared interests and arrive at decisions through some sort of democratic process.
A formal organization characterized by a clearly defined hierarchy with a commitment to rules, efficiency, and impersonality.
social control
The ways in which a society encourages conformity to its norms and prevents deviance.