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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
changing one's beliefs or behaviors to be consistent with group standards or social norms
doing what we are asked to do even if we prefer not to
Obedience to authority
complying with a person or group perceived to be a legitimate authority
Intense indoctrination
occurs when individuals become members of extreme groups, accepting beliefs and rules in unquestioning ways
Normative Social Influence
based on desire to be liked and accepted
Informational Social Influence
based on desire to be correct
Sherif's Autokinetic Studies
Autokinetic effect is an optical illusion, if you place people in completely dark rooms and let them observe a pinprick of light for some time, they will have the illusion that the light starts to move erratically after some time
Sherif's Studies
asked people to estimate how far the light moved on several trials. Individual estimates converged, forming an individual norm. Then asked people to estimate in groups of 2 or 3, they converged to form a group norm. when they were once again alone, their answers were consistent with the group norm.
Asch's Studies on Conformity
Compared lines, in groups, most people gave the wrong answer but person still conformed and gave the wrong answer. Many knew it was wrong but didn't want to be different. Others knew they were wrong but doubted their own perceptions. Still others thought they were correct.
Milgrim's Obedience Studies
People were obedient and shocked the learner at dangerous levels.
Variations to Milgrim's Studies
When learner and teacher were in the same room, teacher did not obey as much. When experimenter was out of room and gave instructions through the phone, obedience decreased. When the legitimacy of the experimenter was questionable obedience decreased.
Resistance to Obedience
People may resist when:
-victim's suffering is salient
-person fels responsible for their actions
-others model disobedience
-people are encouraged to question authority
Factors that influence obedience
-emotional distance of the victim
-closeness and legitimacy of the authority
-institutional authority
-liberating effects of group influence
Factors that influence conformity
group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, public response, no prior commitment, reactance
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord with social pressure while privately disagreeing
conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure
Moscovici's Study
Asked participants color of slides (all were varying shades of blue). In the control, all were participants. Inconsistent minority, cohort said green 2/3 of the time and blue 1/3 of the time. In consistent minority, cohort said green all the time.
Minority Influences
Consistent minorities are influential because they
-disrupt the majority norm
-draw attention to minority
-draw attention to alternative view
-demonstrate certainty and commitment to view
Effective Minority Influence
must be
-flexible in style of presentation
-not appear to be driven by self interest
Foot in door technique
first make a small request then a large one
door in face technique
first make an unreasonably large request, then a smaller one
low ball technique
first make a reasonable request, then reveal further costs
that's not all technique
first make a large request, then offer a bonus or discount
pique technique
make an unusual request to disrupt target's mindless refusal script
Behavior and attitudes
studies demonstrate that attitudes do not always predict behavior. External pressures can easily override our inner convictions
Power of the situation
People conform to societal norms all the time
Prosocial behavior
-action intended to benefit another
-behaviors that are carried out with the goal of helping other people
-action intended solely to benefit another and thus not to gain any external or internal reward
-unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Casual Helping
-helping with homework, lending another notes or books, giving a ride locally, giving directions, opening/holding a door
Substantial personal helping
bringing or sending flowers, a car, or small gift, giving a ride for long distance, visiting someone out of town
emotional helping
listening to someone talk through a problem, being there for someone, providing loyalty
emergency helping
starting a car or changing a tire for someone, taking care of someone who is sick, walking someone home at night
Basic motives for helping someone
Evolutionary-help kin to spread gene pool
Social Norms-norm in society is to help others (social responsibility)
Social Exchange Theory-maximize benefit of behavior but minimize cost
Empathy and Altruism-help others w/o thought for yourself, knowing how they feel
Helping as disguised self interest
people help others because of the rewards they get from helping
6 Motives for Volunteering
Values, understanding, social, career, ego protection, esteem enhancement
Diffusion of responsibility
In organized or anonymous groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking responsibility for actions or decisions because they assume that others will do so
Bystander effect
finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders
Pluralistic Ignorance
act as others are acting in an emergency
Darley and Latane Decision Tree
1. Notice the event
2. Interpret the event as an emergency
3. assume responsibility
4. know appropriate form of assistance
5. implement decision
How to increase the chances that people will help you out
-make it clear you need help
-reduce diffusion of responsibility by singling out a person in the group
-if possible give instructions on how to help you
Time Pressure
If people are late they will be least likely to help, if they are on time it is 50/50 whether or not they will help, if they have lots of time then they are most likely to help
Positive-don't want to focus on something that will take away good mood if situation is ambiguous so less likely to help
Negative-want to help so they can feel better only if situation isn't ambiguous or difficult and unpleasant
Altruistic personality-high in empathy, belief in just world, good behavior is rewarded, high in social responsibility, internal locust of control, low in egocentrism
people are more likely to help individuals that are attractive
women receive more help from men
women appear to engage in more prosocial behavior
people are more likely to help others who are similar to them
people are more likely to help people who are close to them
Empathy-Altruism hypothesis
Observe emergency => empathy is aroused => victim needs help, feels good to help
Negative-State relief model
observe emergency => negative affect is aroused => to reduce own negative affect
Empathic-Joy hypothesis
observe emergency => leads to desire to act and positively affect the victim => to engage in an activity with a positive outcome and feel good
Genetic Determination Model
observe emergency => unconscious desire to help if victim genetically similar => to maximize survival of similar genes
physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt another person
Instrumental aggression
aggression that is a means to some other end
Hostile aggression
aggression that is driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
Evolutionary perspective of aggression
people are predisposed to be aggressive, men had to be more aggressive to increase gene pool
Social Learning Theory
model, reinforcement, and social norms
behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through the direct experience of rewards and punishments
Gender differences
men are generally more physically or overtly aggressive
women are more covertly aggressive (spread rumors, talk behind people's back)
Bandura's Bobo doll study
Children who watched an adult beat up a bobo doll were more likely to act aggressively towards the doll than children who did not watch an adult beat it up
Modeling aggressive behavior
-learn specific aggressive behaviors
-develop more positive attitudes toward aggression
Reward and punishment
rewards can lead to an increase in aggression
punishment can lead to a decrease in aggression when
a) it immediately follows the aggressive behavior
b) it is strong enough to deter the aggressor
c) it is certain
d) it is perceived as fair and legitimate by the aggressor
Situational influences on aggression
alcohol, negative affect (negative feelings), temperature, crowding, physical pain, bad odors, interpretation of intent, aggressive cues
Weapons effect
having symbols of weapons causes aggression, primes hostile thoughts or behaviors
Berkowits and LePage Study: male participants who were provoked by confederates gave more shocks when guns and rifles were present than when badminton racquets and birdies were present
Media and Aggression
watching violent tv shows leads to aggressive behaviors
Media increases arousal, distorts perceptions, reduces inhibitions, desensitization, teaches ways to be violent
Sex and Aggression
strong correlation between porn and sexual fantasies that involve violence
Donnerstein and Berkowitz: after watching violent sexual films, men reported greater acceptance of violence toward women and rape myths, women reacted the opposite
Reducing aggression
Catharsis-venting anger and aggression in healthy ways (thought to decrease aggression, research shows it often increases it)

apologies, more careful processing of information, making preattributions, training in social skills, incompatible response technique
Zajonce's Drive Theory
Presence of others => heightened arousal => if dominant responses are correct in the present situation => performance is enhanced


Presence of others => heighteneed arousal => if dominant response is incorrect in the present situation => performance is impaired
Distraction-Conflict Theory
social facilitation stems from the conflict produced when individuals attempt, simultaneously, to pay attention to other persons and to the task being performed
evaluation apprehension
the type of audience affects social facilitation. In studies by Cotrell and co. social facilitation effects did not occur if the audience was blindfolded or showed no interest in watching the person performing a task.
Majority Rules decision scheme
group will opt for whatever position is initially supported by most of its members
Truth Wins rule decision scheme
correct solution or decision will ultimately be accepted as its correctness is recognized by more and more members
First Shift Rule decision scheme
groups tend to adopt a decision consistent with the direction of the first shift in opinion shown by any member
Social Dilemmas
situations in which each person can increase his or her individual gains by acting in one way, but if all (or most) persons do the same thing, the outcomes experienced by all are reduced