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31 Cards in this Set

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size of drawing (mm) / size of specimen (mm)

Actual Size

Image Size / Magnification

Test For Sugars

Take equal samples for comparison

• Crush the sample (if it’s needed) or extract with water

• Add Benedict’s Solution

• Heat (not warming) with a water bath

• Same time of Boiling for comparison

• The colour changes blue to green to yellow to orange to red

• Or it remains blue if there is no reducing sugars (negative result)

Test for starch

Crush the sample (if it’s needed) or extract with water

• Add drops of iodine

• Observe colour change brown to blue-black

Test for proteins

* Add a measured volume of Biuret solution

* In a test tube or a beaker

* Colour changes from blue to purple

Test for fats

Add a measured volume of ethanol to the sample

Add an equal volume of water to the mixture

A white emulsion forms which is a sign of

Test of Oxygen

Relights a glowing splint

Test of Hydrogen

Ignites with a burning 'pop' sound

Test of Carbon Dioxide

Bubble gas in limewater

Limewater turns milky white

Carbon dioxide is an acidic gas, it lowers the pH

Test for ammonia

Turns damp red litmus paper blue

Test for chlorine

Bleaches litmus paper

Test for water

Use (anhydrous) cobalt (2) chloride paper - turns blue to pink

Test (liquid) boiling point/ freezingpoint for water; Impure water has a lower MP and a higher BP

Ice Water temperature?

0 degrees Celsius

Room Temperature?

22 to 25 degrees Celsius

Hot Water temperature?

60 degrees Celsius

In what conditions does lipase works best in?

Lipase works best in alkaline conditions / provides suitable pH for lipase ;

Why are two beakers left alone for 5 minutes?

So that both tubes reach the experimental temperature

When milk breaks down it is ....

-Acidified since it breaks down to glycerol and fatty acids

Glucose breaks down to...

-Reducing sugars like glucose


The net movement ofmolecules from a region of their higherconcentration to a region of their lowerconcentration down a concentration gradient, asa result of their random movement


The diffusion of watermolecules from a region of their higherconcentration (dilute solution) to a region of theirlower concentration (concentrated solution),through a partially permeable membrane

Active Transport

Movement of ionsin or out of a cell through the cell membrane,from a region of their lower concentration to aregion of their higher concentration against aconcentration gradient, using energy releasedduring respiration

Potato tuber

Flower parts

Tuber and flower type of production?

Tuber - asexual reproduction

Flower-sexual reproduction

How to show the formation of starch in a green plant?

-Destarch a plant/put in dark/cover with paper or foil

-Test for starch; [no details required for this mark}

-Expose leaf to light and test for starch AGAIN

-Use alcohol before adding iodine (solution}; brown to blue-black.

What is agar jelly for...

Produces all the nutrients necessary for a bacterium

Hydrogencarbonate indicator is used...

To show carbon dioxide concentration in solution.

-Highest: Yellow

-Higher: Orange

-Atmospheric level: Red

-Low: Magenta

-Lowest: Purple

What is required to emulsify / break down large fat droplets to smaller droplets?



Petiole and midrib?

-leaf branch

-middle leaf