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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
autocratic rulers had complete authority over the governmnet and the lives of hte people in their nation
Akbar the Great
Absolute Ruler: India
Mughal Empire
-strengthened the central government
-empire larger and stronger army that any in Europe at the time
-modernized army, encouraged trade, land reforms
Solidified reign by recognizing India's diversity and promoting religious tolerance
Charles V
Absolute Ruler: Spain
grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella
King of Spain and Holy Romam Emperor

In 1556 divided empire
brother Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor
Son Philip ruled Spain, the Netherlands, and vast Spanish overseas empires
Philip II
Absolute Ruler: Spain
expanded his power as well as the influence of the Catholic Church and the Spanish Empire
Ruled by divine right

Promoted Golden Age in Spain
Divine Right
the king is an agent of God, and his authority to rule comes directly from God
Golden Age of Spain
Philip II
Henry IV
Absolute Ruler: France
Date- ?
increase influence of government
reduce power of nobles
Louis XIII
Absolute Ruler: France
appointed Cardinal Armand Richelieu as chief minister
increased royal power
strengthened the government and made his army the strongest in Europe
Cardinal Armand Richelieu
Chief minister
appointed by Louis XIII

subdued of defeated the two groups that did not agree with the royal authorities:
1. nobles
2. Protestant Huguenots
Louis XIV
Absolute Ruler: France
1643-1715 ; 72 years
The Sun King
-expanded the bureaucracy, appointing officials to collect taxes, recruit soldiers, and carry out his rule in the provinces.
-built the Palace of Versailles outside of Paris
-organized a highly discipline army, the strongest in Europe
-persecuted the Protestant Huguenots, depriving the nation of many of its most hard-working and prosperous citizens

left France in debt
Ivan III
Absolute Ruler: Russia
Ivan the Great

Built the framework for absoulte rule in Russia
Czar Ivan IV
Absolute Ruler: Russia
Ivan the Terrible

organized ruthless personal police force
wore black robes
Peter the Great
Absolute Ruler: Russia

-centralize royal power
-reduced power of the nobility
-gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church

-modernize Russia
-traveled West
-simplified alphabet, developed mining and textiles
-Capital at St. Petersburg symbolized new Russia

Foreign Policiy:
-largest army in Europe in late 1600's
-gained ports on Baltic Sea
*-DID NOT gain warm water port in Black Sea; fought Ottoman Turks
(later acquired by Catherine the Great)
Tudor Family
*included Henry VIII and Elizabeth I

Tudors believed in divine right, but worked well with Parliament

*In 1603 passed the throne to the Stuart Dynasty
James I
England: Stuart Monarch

-sought to increase power through divine right
-clashed with Parliament
1. needed money for wars
2. extravagant court life
-dissolved Parliament, imposed own taxes

*fought with Puritans who were seeking to purify the church of England by eliminating Catholic practicies
Thomas Hobbes
English thinker
supported Stuart monarchies

"The Leviathan", Hobbes wrote that people were by nature selfish and greedy, would fall into chaos unless ruled by a strong government that could suppress rebellion.
-believed absolute monarchies were necessary
Charles I
England: Stuart dynasty
inherited thorne in 1625 from James I
-continued fathers absolute policies
1. put enemies in prison without trials
2. imposed very high taxes
3. angered Puritans
4. dissolved Parliament
* summoned Parliament in 1640 to suppress a Scotish revellion

*first monarch to be executed by the people
English Civil War

Puritan Revolution
Charles's supporters:
the Cavaliers

Parliament's supporters:
the roundheads
-consisted of Puritans, country landowners, and town-based manufacturers
*led by Oliver Cromwell
-captured king in 1647, put on trial and beheaded Charles I
Oliver Cromwell

Lord Protector
Leader of the Roundheads during the English Civil War
? (1649) - 1658
-After Charles I execution Parliament's House of Commons abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the official Church of England
-England became a Republic with Oliver Cromwell as the Leader
-time period known as the Commonwealth

-supporters of Charles II, uncrowned heir attacked Enlgand from Ireland and Scotland
-uprising suppressed
-at Cromwell's death many people were sick of Puritan rule
The Restoration
1660 - Parliament invited Charles II, son of Charles I, to become King of England
*marked restoration of Stuart Dynasty

1685- thrown inherited by brother James II
-very unpopular because of Catholicism and absolutist policies

led to Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution

Bloodless Revolution
1688- Parliament overthrew James II (fearing the return of Catholic dominance)

- Parliament asked James II's daughter Mary, and her Dutch husband, Willliam, to take the thrown- both Protestants

-James II fled to France, completing the Bloodless Revolution
William and Mary
Mary, daughter of James II, and Dutchman William, both Protestant, rulers of England after the Glorious Revolution

Forced to sign English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights
-King must work regularly with Parliament
-King msut give the House of Commons complete finanical contron
-abolished excessive fines and cruel or unusual punishment
-affirmed habeas corpus, no person could be held in jail without first being charged with a crime\

England became Limited Monarchy
Limited Monarchy
governmnet in which a legislative body limits the monarch's powers
Toleration Act
Toleration Act of 1689 granted Protestant desenters, such as Puritans and QUakers, limited toleration

Catholics were denied toleration