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20 Cards in this Set

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Volcano

A place where extremely hot material from inside the Earth erupts at the surface

Materials in an eruption

Gasses such as steam


Ash


Lava


Solid volcano rock

Magma

Molten rock below the earth's surface

When can an eruption be explosive

Magma is viscous


Contains alot of water and gas

Pyrolytic flow

a cloud of ash, rock and gas about 500 Celsius that exists from a volcano like an avalanche

Where do volcanoes occur?

Near the edges of tectonic plates- movement create weaknesses


Diverging plate boundaries create weaknesses because the separating plates thin the crust.


Converging plates, subduction, create weaknesses and generates heat

Hot spots

Isolated places away from plate boundaries where alot of hot magma is being created

Earthquake

Rapid movement on the ground, usually back and forty, up and down in a wave motion due to movement of tectonic plates

Seismometer

An instrument that detects seismic waves from an earthquake

Seismic wave

The shaking, wave like movement on the ground in an earthquake

Primary waves

Longitudinal waves that travel through the earth

Secondary waves

Transverse wave that travel slightly slower than p waves through the earth

Surface waves

Slowest waves and most destructive

S and P waves

Travel deep under the ground


Bend upwards to reach the surface


P waves shake the ground up and down, s waves shake the ground sideways

Focus

The place below the ground where an earthquake starts

Epicentre

He point in the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

Tsunami

A huge wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake occurring on the seafloor

Building designs

Dampers- structures that move in opposition to the waves and oppose their effects.


Base isolation- pads, strings and bearings that allow the building to surpress the waves by moving rather than vibrating with the Earth

Why can volcanoes be found near the edges of converging plates?

Collision of plates and subduction create weaknesses in the crust anf generates alot of heat. Magma rises up from those weaknesses

Cause of an earthquake?

Caused by rapid release of energy as the tectonic plates move.