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39 Cards in this Set

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Ecology

scientific study of the interactions btw organisms and their environments


relationships among organisms and their interaction with the environment


patterns and causes of the abundance and distribution of organisms

Ecosystem

biotic community and its abiotic components functioning as a system

How do the organisms of an ecosystem relate?

organismal -> population ecology -> community ecology -> ecosystem ecology & landscape ecology

Climate

average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time





What are 4 abiotic factors that influence climate

temperature, precipitation, wind, sunlight

Global climate patterns are largely determined by? (2 things)

input of solar energy , planet's movement in space

warming effect of sun causes temp variations, which drive ____ and circulation of ______ and _____.

evaporation, circulation of air and water

soltices and equinoxes (diagram)

greatest annual input and least seasonal variation in solar radiation is in _______

tropics

Explain surface global air circulation

Tropics:


Trade winds

winds blow from E to W

Temperate:


Westerlies

winds blow from W to E

Precipitation is highest where?

tropics/equatorial regions and declines as you move north to south

Intertropical convergence zone

ITCZ - where the northeasterly and south easterly trade winds meet (air mass piles up and warm humid air rises and cools, releasing water.


not stationary but migrates to region with warmest surface temp

specific heat is lower on land or water?

land

ocean currents

created by winds, the planet rotation, unequal heating of surface waters and the location and shapes of continents

gyres

great circular motions formed as the warm water moves away from the equator

Biome

environment that is defined by its climatic and geographic attributes


characterized by ecologically similar organisms

Terrestrial biomes

categorized by climate and plant life

aquatic biomes

primarily by their physical environment (freshwater vs marine)

oceans cover ___% of earth's surface

75%

zonation of aquatic environments depend on what factors?

depth, light penetration, distance from shore and position in pelagic benthic zone

marine benthic zone

seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal zone and the offshore pelagic zone.




organisms in abyssal zone are adapted to dark, cold, extreme high pressure

bioluminescence


chemical reaction that produces light

_________ of aquatic biomes leads to seasonal turnover in the many temperate lakes

stratifcation

What are some examples of threats to habitats of aquatic biomes

overfishing, bottom trolling, dumping of sewage and wastewater (pollution), invasive species, contamination, alteration of flow, development

tropical forests (1st terrestrial biome)

occur in warm, moist belt along the equator (hi temp year round)

Tropical rainforests

rainfall constant, most species rich and productive biome

tropical dry forests

seasonal precipitation, taller trees that lose leaves during long hot, dry season.

Deserts (terrestrial biomes #2)

low and unpredictable rainfall



Tropical savannas (terrestrial biomes #3)

drier tropical areas (some non tropical)


microenvironments of higher soil nutrients and moisture are found under tree canopies


support large diversity of herbivores that graze or browse the vegetation


large # of insects, carnivores, scavengers are also supported

Chaparral (terr biome #4)

shrubland with cool rainy winters and dry hot summers


adapted to periodic fires


animals include browsing deer, fruit eating birds, seed-eating rodents, lizards, snakes

temperate grasslands (terr biome #5)

found in interiors of the continents, where winters are cold




drought, fires and grazing animals prevent trees from growing; deep fertile soils




MIDWEST USA

Coniferous forest (terr biome #6)

taiga: long cold winters & relatively warm summers


favors evergreen trees


dominant animals: moose, hares, rodents, birds, insects.




LARGEST BIOME ON EARTH

Temperate broadleaf forests (terr biome #7)

cold winters and warm moist summers


found where there is sufficient moisture to support the growth of large trees


lots of tree species, permanent residents and migrant animals, some hibernate in burrows

Tundra (terr biome #8)

found in arctic and high elevations at all latitudes (alpine tundra)




treeless biome characterized by extreme cold, wind and permafrost

arctic tundra

lies between the taiga and permanently frozen polar regions

what kinds of plants are in the tundra?

photosynth 3 months of the year




erect leaves for complete interception of solar radiation and they photo synth during the 24 hour daylight periods.


most of the photosynthate goes into the production of new growth (roots)

what kind of animals in tundra?

herbivores (caribou, lemmings, arctic hares, musk oxen)


Carnivores (wolf, arctic fox, snowy owls)