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77 Cards in this Set

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A state is a set of organizations (more or less coherent, effective, and strong) that seeks to regulate human activity in a defined territory and claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of force.
A nation is a group of people who share a culture, ethnicity, language or common history, often seeking political recognition and independent government.
A totalitarian regime is a political system where the state seeks to control every aspect of public and private life including civil society and the economy. These regimes use propaganda, state-controlled media, mass surveillance, and state terrorism to maintain political power. Authoritarian regimes have a mentality, totalitarian regimes have an ideology.
An authoritarian regime is characterized by “limited pluralism” which enables powerful elites to maintain wealth and political control by repressing. Different types of authoritarian regimes include single-party, military, and personalistic regimes, among others.
Levitsky & Way, 2002) A competitive authoritarian regime is a non-democratic form of government where incumbents abuse state resources, deny media, harass opposition candidates, and manipulate election results, while at the same time allowing for basic democratic institutions that offer an important opportunity to challenge incumbents through the media, judiciary, legislative, and electoral process.
Democracy is typically defined in a “procedural” manner, rather than earlier “substantive” definitions of democracy. Procedurally, a country is judged to be democratic when its top leaders are chosen periodically in open, fee, and fair elections in which most adult citizens are allowed to vote. Free elections implies a certain degree of political liberties as well, such as the rights of speech and assembly.
Classic modernization theory predicted that economic growth would lead to social and political development, namely democracy. One of the major phases of modernization includes the transformation from agrarian to industrial societies.
Inglehart’s reformulation of modernization theory asserts that socioeconomic development tends to make people more secular, tolerant, and trusting and to place more emphasis on self-expression values which are conducive to democracy and human development.
The oil curse describes the paradox that countries with oil resources tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes than less endowed countries. In politics, the oil curse can be defined as a propensity to authoritarian rule in resource-rich economies.
The third wave of democracy refers to the period beginning in 1974 and ending in 1990s when 30 new countries transitioned to democracy. Samuel Huntington (1991) theorized several major explanatory factors for this new wave including the economic and military failures of authoritarian regimes, unprecedented global economic growth, the end of the Cold War, and demonstration effects from transitions in other parts of the world.
Political Regime
Economic Development
Culture and History
Party Families
International Influences
Political Regime
Economic Development
Culture and History
"I" (first)
Party Families
"I" (second)
International Influences
A State is . . . . .
“the monopoly of the legitimate use ofviolence within a defined territory” – Max Weber
A State is distinct from a:
Nation: implies ethnic or national homogeneity
Country: implies territory
Polity: can be larger or smaller than a state
Jurisdiction: often refers to a sub-state unit
Some states are more state-like than others
Do they achieve tasks more effectively than others?
Monopoly of force
Defined territory
Scope (Fukuyama)
Nation building
Promoting growth
Social justice
Between units
From other states
Political Regime
Who governs succession?
Liberal democracy (polyarchy)
Semi-democracy (diminished democracy)
Pseudo-democracy (authoritarian)
Economic Development
What is level of GDP per capita?
Over 6000 USD/year
Expect democracy to survive
Under 6000 USD/year
Expect problems with democratic stability
Not all wealthy countries become democratic
Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, Saudi Arabia
Challenges to authoritarian rule happen at all levels of economic development
But democracy can be difficult to sustain
Culture and History
Countries have different cultures that affect politics
Residual in Inglehart World Values Survey
Determined by religion, history, and other factors
Each culture has its own narratives about them that are worth understanding
Culture changes with economic modernization
Transition from survival to self-expression values
Self-expression values underpin democracy
But may retain a significant residual difference
These differences can help to explain politics and policy
Institutions create durable means of mediating social conflict
Political regimes differ significantly in formal institutions
First-past-the-post electoral system
Single-party cabinet
Unitary state
Unicameral or weak bicameral legislature
Proportional representation electoral system
Coalition cabinet
Strong bicameral legislature
Political institutions constrain policy change
Path dependency
Veto players
Party Families
How many parties?
Most political parties derive from one of the main party families, representing important historical junctures in world politics
Monarchist parties
Liberal parties
Conservative parties
Socialist parties
Marxist revolutionary parties
Social-democratic parties
Populist parties
Extreme nationalist parties
Fascist parties
Xenophobic nationalist parties
Green parties
National liberation movement parties
International Influences
Political regimes anchored in international regimes
Western liberal system
Core members are liberal democracies
Cannot become core member otherwise
Peripheral countries emulate core countries
Regional political regimes also important
European Union/NATO
New member states democratization
Organization of American States
Mechanisms of emulation and influence
Direct (coercion)
Indirect (norms, soft power)
Who owns the wealth? And how much?
What are their values and interests?
Class coalitions and conflict influence politics and underpin mediating institutions
Wealthy are almost always an indispensible part of any governing coalition
Democracies: majoritarian vs. consensus democracies, consensus is more democratic, “kinder” to citizens and as efficient (control of inflation)
Democracies: federalism is a division of responsibilities between local and central government where each has final say on some issues
1st Wave of Democracy
1820-1926 (Huntington)
2nd Wave of Democracy
1926- Reached peak in 1962 (Huntington)
3rd Wave of Democracy
1974-1990 (Huntington)
Transformation (democratic)
occurred when the elites in power took the lead in bringing about democracy. (top-down)
Replacement (democratic)
occurred when opposition groups took the lead in bringing about democracy, and the authoritarian regime collapsed or was overthrown. (bottom-up)
Transplacement (democratic)
occurred when democratization resulted largely from joint action by government and opposition.
Pro-democratization factors (Huntington)
• Deepening legitimacy problems of authoritarian regimes
• Unprecedented global economic growth of the 1960s led to growing middle class
• Activities of the Catholic Church
• Changes in external actors
• Snowballing/Domino theory

Reversal Factors:
• Weakness of democratic values among key elite groups
• Social instability and popularity of authoritarian remedies
• Middle class vs. populists
• Breakdown in order because of terrorism or outside intervention
Reversal (of democratization) factors
• Weakness of democratic values among key elite groups
• Social instability and popularity of authoritarian remedies
• Middle class vs. populists
• Breakdown in order because of terrorism or outside intervention
Competitive Authoritarianism, regime has democratic institutions that offer important channel for opposition, overall nature of politics still undemocratic, totalitarian and bureaucratic authoritarianism have become harder to sustain
Levitsky and Way
Typology of authoritarian regimes
1. Bureaucratic-military
2. Institutionalized authoritarian
3. Post independence mobilization
4. Racial and ethnic “democracies”
5. Totalitarian
Hybrid regimes, distinguishing between procedural and results based definitions of democracy
• Democracy depends on percentage of seats held by ruling party, percentage of vote won by ruling presidential party, years that the incumbents have been fully in control
Classic Modernization
(economic growth leads to democracy, end of religion/ethnicity, ethnocentric towards Westernization (Inglehart and Weizel)
Revised Modernization
development makes people more secular, tolerant and trusting – values that are conducive to democracy and human development. Culture is a determining factor in extent of democratization, but economic growth changes culture and reduces its impact.
(Inglehart and Weizel)
Aims to dispel the myth that dictatorships are better at economic growth and that development will eventually give way to democracy. Average rate of investment actually higher in poor democracies, labor productivity lower in poor dictatorships. Democracies not produced by development, happens at random with regards to development. Higher wealth does help with democratic consolidation. Disregards thesis that economic growth destabilizes democracy, above 5% it actually stabilizes.
Democracies are more permanent than oligarchies because of greater investment of the middle class in the political order. Without consensus there can be no democracy, diverse coalitions necessary. Higher income will help a democracy be sustained, education is useful but not sufficient. Democracy stability depends on economic growth, effectiveness and legitimacy.
Three modes of external influence: inspiration, coalition, and substitution
Activist network capabilities: information politics, symbolic politics, leverage politics, Accountability politics
Keck and Sikkink
bounded rationality of policymakers, rely on proxy indicators in the face of imperfect information, can be swayed by success stories
Components of democracy: effective participation, voting equality, enlightened understanding, control of the agenda, inclusion of adults
distinguishes between constitutional liberalism and democracy, democracy is a procedure while constitutional liberalism includes rule of law, separation of power, and rights
Development of Democracy:
(1) to check arbitrary rulers, (2) to replace arbitrary rules with just and rational ones and (3) to obtain a share for the underlying population in the making of rules.
(Barrington Moore)
Conditions necessary for Development of Democracy:
(1) Development of a balance to avoid too strong a crown or too independent a landed aristocracy
(2) Appropriate form of commercial agriculture, either on the part of the landed aristocracy or the peasantry
(3) Weakening of the landed aristocracy (vis-à-vis bourgeoisie, peasants, and workers)
(4) Prevention of an aristocratic-bourgeois coalition against the peasants and workers
(5) Revolutionary break with the past
(Barrington Moore)
Implications of interest aggregation
(1) Narrowing of policy options
(2) Concentration of political resources in the hands of few political actors
(3) Aggregation can reflect or alter polarization in society
Competitive party systems:
Interest aggregation takes place at several stages – individual parties, choice of candidates, adoption of policy proposals, electoral competition, bargaining and coalition building.
— Majoritarian two-party systems
— Majority-coalition systems
— Multiparty systems
Authoritarian party systems:
aggregation takes place within the ranks or in interaction with business groups, landowners, and institutional groups in the bureaucracy or military
— Exclusive governing party
— Inclusive governing party (ex. Authoritarian corporatist)
Military governments:
unstable because unable to aggregate internal differences, build compromise, and mobilize wide support for government policy
Typology of Political Parties:
Gunther and Diamond:

based on 3 criteria
1. Size of formal organization and the extent of the function they perform
2. Whether the party is tolerant/pluralistic or proto-hegemonic in objectives and behavioral style
3. Distinguishing programmatic or ideological commitments
Seven Functions of Parties
Gunther and Diamond:
(1) Candidate nomination (elite recruitment); (2) Electoral mobilization; (3) Issue Structuring; (4) Societal representation; (5) Interest Aggregation; (6) Forming and sustaining governments; (7) Social integration – enable citizens to participate effectively in the political process and feel that they have a vested interest in its perpetuation.
“In retrospect, there was nothing wrong with the Washington consensus per se: The state sectors of developing countries were in very many cases obstacles to growth and could only be fixed in the long run through economic liberalization. But the states needed to be simultaneously strengthened in other areas. The emphasis was wrong.”

"The problem for many countries was that in the process of reducing state scope they either decreased state strength or generated demands for new types of state capabilities that were either weak or nonexistent."
Democratic transition paradigm
Five Core Assumptions of the Transition Paradigm:
 Any country moving away from dictatorial rule can be considered a country in transition towards democracy.
 Sequence of democratization: opening, breakthrough, consolidation
 Elections seen as foundation and generator of further democratic reforms, provide the basis of legitimacy for new government, participation, and accountability for citizens
 Universal trend in third wave democracies dislodged deterministic / cultural explanations for the spread of democracy. The new “no preconditions” outlook was both gratifying and optimistic for democracy-promotion agencies.
 Third wave democracies are built on the assumption of coherent-functioning states
Competitive Authoritarianism (CA):
(1) Non Democratic: Incumbents abuse state resources, deny media, harass opposition candidates & supporters, and manipulate election results
(2) Not fully authoritarian: Democratic institutions offer an important channel to challenge incumbents
Arenas of democratic contestation:
(1) Electoral; (2) Legislative; (3) Judiciary; (4) Media
Paths to Competitive Authoritarian:
(1) Authoritarian Decay; (2) Authoritarian Collapse; (3) Democratic Decay
Conceptual models of policy making (lecture 9)
1)Institutional MOdel (executive and legislature)
2)Rational MOdel (rational actors (self-interest maximization, Bayesian leraning, base for public choice and game theory)
3) Incremental Model (response to Rational Model)--> limited change to policies, realistic approach
4) Group Model--> policies are results of equilibrium from different group/vested interests, Policy maker responds to group pressures. Policy change a result of change in relative strength of different groups
5) Elite model--> policy making on Elites--> would contradict Downs' "Median Voter Theorem"
6) Policy Cycle/process model (considering multiple constraints, various policy processes, infinite cycle of decisions and policies
Policy Cycle
agenda setting (idnetify problems, Source of Power, done by different actors)--> policy formulation--> policy adoption --> implementation, evaluation
Majoritarian (executive and legislative fusion) vs Consensus (power sharing, balancing between executive and legislature)
Bismarck and Beveridge's 5 Giants that gave rise to welfare state
want, disease, squalor, ignorance, idleness

Welfare state

Willensky (1975): gov-protected minimum standards of income nutrition, health, housing and education

Welfare state emergence explanation
1. Functional approach: answer to problems of capitalism (industrialization gave rise to inequality and risks of unemployment)
2. Class MObilization Approach: WS as an outcome of political struggles of different classes (usually labor movements)--> aiming to decommodify labor
3. Instituionalist Approach: WS central to nation-state Building
Expansion of Welfare state
1. Impact of Social Democracy (political power shifting to the working class and social democracy)
2. Role of Neo-Corporatism and the International Economy (neo-corporatist structure countries have strong left parties and welfare states)-->Neo-Corporatism found in small open states
3. Risk Redistribution: Not only wealth redistribution, but also risk
4. Christian Democracy (political catholism also promote welfare)
5. Secular Trends (aging demography)
tax financed or contribution financed
discremination against class/working status or not
Labor Market flexibility and employment Security--> from an optimal combination of LME and CME (Variety of Capitalism theory)
development in cold war context
win over the world
Process of social change whereby less developed societies acquire characteristics of more developed societies.
underdevelopment theories (Prebisch and Singer)
structuralist view
center and peripheral states (and semi-periphery)
ToT favors center,
Dependency theory
Development and underdevelopment have a symbiotic relationship
Structure of the global system perpetuate this relationship
Response: ISI--> infant industry/State planning
human well-being is best advanced by liberating individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework
State interventions result in distortion and contradictions
Development requires consolidation of market-based mechanisms of organizing economies and allocating