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21 Cards in this Set

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Effective Management

Involved getting work done through the actions of other people. Significant roles of a manager is Planning, organising, leading and controlling.

Role of Management: (POLC): <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


Planning (DecisionMaking – mainly used for strategic planning):

· Planning occurs at 3 levels:<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


- Strategic:long term (2-5years), senior management


- Tactical:medium term (1-2years), middle management


- Operational:short term (up to a year), front line managers



· When Planning there are 5 Steps to follow:


- SetObjectives: imperative that organisations set and review its goals on anongoing basis, and making staff aware of what they are trying to do.


- Analysesituation: SWOT allows organisations to evaluate their position.


- Developalternatives: weighing up the options or possible courses of action andassess their appropriateness.


- Implementplan: once options have been evaluated, one should be selected andimplemented.


- Monitorprogress: must monitor the results of the implemented plan assess whetheror not objectives were met.


· Planning should include a SWOT analysis:


- Strength:include reputation, quality, and social responsibility.


- Weakness:reputation and structure


- Opportunity:globalisation, low interest rates


- Threats:globalisation, increase costs, environment issues.


Role of Management: (POLC):


Organising(Co-ordinating resources – Labour, materials)<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



§ Allocating tasks to employees/teams<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


§ Co – coordinating employees/tasks to ensureorganisations operate efficiently and effectively.


§ Ensure employees have resources to work happily.




Role of Management: (POLC):


Leading (Influencing/Motivating– the plan):<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



§ Leading is getting people to follow willingly<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


§ Creating confidence and empowering employees


§ Good leadership involves having a vision,knowledge, being goal driven, working with others, being supportive and being arole model.



Role of Management: (POLC):


Controlling(Implementing/ Monitoring)<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



§ Is monitoring the progress of the plan.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


§ Looks at performance standards


§ Controlling includes:


- PerformanceStandards: meeting objectives


- Time:meeting deadlines


- Cost:reducing costs/ expenses


- Financial:setting objectives to control employees


Management Styles:


Autocratic (Tells):<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Managers make all decisions, one waycommunication, consistent. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


- Advantages:decisions made quickly, works in time when hard decisions have to be madequickly.


- Disadvantages:employee input not taken into account when decisions are made, employee skillsnot utilised, employee motivation limited.



Management Styles:


Persuasive (Sells): <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



· One way communication, no feedbacks fromemployees, decisions are made by managers and reasons are given, consistency. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


- Advantages: decisionsmade quickly, reasons for decisions are explained to better understand.


- Disadvantages: negativeresponse from employees is unlikely to change a decision.


Management Styles:

Consultative (Asks): <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

· Employees have input into decisions, some twoway communication.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


- Advantages: employeeexpertise into decision making process, responsibility for decisions stay withmanagement, decision made quickly.


- Disadvantages: someemployee input into decisions but not all skills are utilised, takes more timeto make decisions due to need for consultation, and assumes employees want tobe involved in decision making.


Management Styles:

Participative(Involves): <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

· Employee & management make decisions inconsultation, two way communication, decision making shared and team work.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


- Advantages: decisionsare made by those with skills & experience; decisions are the best decisionpossible, employee skills & expertise utilised.


- Disadvantages: lengthyprocess, management may have a decision that is not what they want, employeesmay not want to be involved.



Management Styles:


Laissez Faire(Freedom):<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />



· Managers have little to do with daily running ofbusiness, an employee have decision making power, works when employees areskilled and experienced.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


- Advantages: employeepotential & skills utilised, high creativity, may lead to new ways of doingthings, increase employee commitment and motivation.


- Disadvantages: authorityunclear, managers unclear about what is happening, decisions making blurred,limited use in most work settings, trouble competing with other organisations.


Management Skills

Skills refer to do something well, gained through training and experience in order to achieve the required work.


Management Skills


Communication:

The process of creating and exchanging informationbetween people that produces the required response. Essential as managers mustbe able to clarify with employees the tasks completed. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


-Interpersonal: manager sharing information with a small group


- Organisational: managerusing a system such as email to inform a larger group.


- EffectiveCommunication: Managers and employees must clearly understand what is beingcommunicated. Barriers such as noise, language, culture, age and level ofeducation must be considered when communicating.



Management Skills


Delegation:

1. passing of authority to perform tasks or makedecisions. Responsibility remains with person delegating. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Benefitsof Delegating:


- Work can continue without manager


- Time saver: allowing management to focus onother matters


- Provides skill training and personaldevelopment.


· Whendelegating, the following should be considered:


- What job/ task is to be completed?


- What authority is required for this task?


- The ability to select appropriate people to dothe task


- Good communication skills


- Ability to establish performance standards anddeadlines


- Ability to monitor and assess of the completedtask.


Some task shouldn’t be delegated: strategicplanning, high risk decisions, high cost decisions, confidential matters,specialised areas where employees lack training.


Management Skills


Decision Making and Problem Solving:

1. When a manger is making a decision, they aresolving a problem – when solving a problem, a manger is making a decision. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Problem solving skill recognises problems, thendevises and implements a plan of action.


· Effective Communication is important


· Consultation can be an aid in the decisionmaking process


· Gathering and analysing information is important


· Allow time to analyse the problem andflexibility to be part of the process.


· Six stepprocess should be used:


1. Define The Objective – What isthe problem?


2. Outlinethe facts – search for factors that may have created the problem


3. Decide on the cause of the problem –what has caused the problem?


4. Develop Several solutions – thismay take time, look at benefits/costs


5. Select and put the most practicalsolution into effect – clearly communicate


6. Evaluate the effectiveness of thesolution – monitor and provide feedback



Management Skills


Negotiation:

1. the process of the parties reaching an agreementor resolution through discussion. Requires effective communication to create awin – win situation. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Steps tohave a successful negotiation:


1. Good preparation – establish objective


2. Establish a positive working atmosphere to negotiate


3. Make the proposal – present clearly andconfidently


4. Respond to the proposal - listen to others


5. Establish position – be prepared to bargain/compromise


6. Record information and confirm understanding



7. Close negotiation




Management Skills


Team Building:

1. enabling individuals to effectively work withothers in order to achieve shared goals.<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Involvesthe ability to:


-Develop commitmentto common vision


-Promotepositive relationship within a group


-Developrespect for the ideas of others


-Recognise andallow for individual strengths and weaknesses


-Co-ordinate efforts toachieve goals



Management Skills


Time Management:

1. making the best use of time in order to completetasks in an efficient and effective manner<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Involvesthe ability to:


-Establish priorities


-Estimate the time needed tocomplete tasks


-Plan the use of time


-Meet deadlines


-Minimise time wastingactivities



Management Skills


Stress Management:

1. the ability to minimise and control the impactof pressure and strain in the workplace. <?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />


· Stress can cause absenteeism, poor performance,poor workplace relations and negative attitudes



Management Skills


Analytical:

theability to identify and solve complex situations based on the informationavailable.


Management Skills


Technical:

theability to respond and have the knowledge an suggest new or alternative or makemodifications/alterations to existing systems


Management Skills


Emotional Intelligence:

the ability to identify/perceive,understand/assess and regulate/manage emotions in ourselves and in others. It’show to interact positively with employees.