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80 Cards in this Set

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What are the four stages of the estrus cycle in the dog?

1. Proestrus - gradual inc in estrogen until 2 days before estrus; as estrogen drops LH is allowed to rise

2. Estrus - LH surge leads to ovulation (2 days post surge), corpus luteum forms & then rise in progesterone

3. Met-/Diestrus - progesterone levels high, prolactin high if unmated

4. Anestrus - progesterone decreases and remains low following corpus luteal regression

At what age does puberty typically occur in the Bitch?

6-23 months

How often does the bitch come into estrus?

Every 4-13 months

How often does the queen come into estrus?

Not mated = Every 21 days

Mated = Every 45 days

Stimulated ovulators (seasonally polyestrus)

Cats are seasonally polyestrus.

True or false?

TRUE - and stimulated ovulators

How long are canine sperm viable inthe female reproductive tract?

~7 days

Describe physical changes of proestrus reproductive cycle in the bitch.

- Vulvalswelling

- Serosanguinousdischarge

- Attractive to males, but WON'T STAND TO BE MATED

Describe physical and behavioral changes during the estrus cycle in the bitch.

- Vulvalswelling maintained

- Dischargebecomes straw colored

- Attractive tomales & STAND TO BE MATED

- May see tail being held to one side

Describe physical and behavioral changes during the met-/diestrus cycle in the bitch.

- Vulvalswelling subsides

- Gradualmammary development

- Inc abdominaldistention & PUPPIES

- No longer standing to be mated

Describe estrus behavior in the queen.

o Calling/vocalization

o Rolling

o Lordosis

o Vulva slightlyswollen, but not obvious

o Not usually discharge as in dog

o 6-8 days duration

What tests can be done to determine best time to mate a dog/cat?

1. LH Surge - in-house kits (measure every 24 hours)

2. Progesterone assay (inc before ovulation) - in-house ELISA, but Lab RIA more accurate

- Measured every 48 hours from start of proestrus signs

3. Vaginal Cytology - mate within 2 days once majority are keratinized epithelial cells (neutrophils = too late to mate)

Describe one low cost option for mating a dog/cat:

o Mate 10-12 days from start of PROESTRUS(bleeding/attractiveness)

o Repeat mating1-2 days later (inc changes of conception)

*** Risk missing ovulation as some bitches vary inlength of time in proestrus ***

What are common reasons for infertility?

1. Mating management = mistiming (40-80%)

2. Physical/structural cause = bitch doesn't allow (dominant female, congenital vaginal septum/stricture, vaginal fold prolapse)

3. Infectious disease (HPV, UTI)

4. Concurrent disease

5. Infertile male (unable to achieve intromission, inadequate semen quality)

6. Not cycling = if hasn't by 2 yo = primary anestrus (causes: husbandry, previous OVH, silent heat, hermaphroditism, hypothyroidism)

7. Inter-estrus length abnormally long or short (causes: breeds, hypothyroidism

What are common causes for abnormal estrus patterns?

1. Split estrus

2. Ovarian remnant syndrome (after OVH)

3. Ovarian cysts (follicular, luteal, or non-functionals)

4. Ovarian tumors (uncommon; granulosa & epithelial cell tumors)

5. Cystic endometrial hyperplasia (prone to pyometra) = prolonged luteal phase

How would you diagnose cystic endometrial hyperplasia?

ULTRASOUND = look for thickening of the uterine walls

Common causes for infertility in male dogs?

1. Azoospermia (pre-, testicular, or post-testicular)

2. Benign prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia (BPH) = entire dogs commonly develop with age

3. Sperm present, but abnormal in:

- Number

- Motility

- Morphology

Clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of BPH?


Clinical signs:

- Entire, older dog

- Blood from penis

- Tenesmus

- Difficulty defecating


- Rectal = enlarged, often non-painful prostate

- Ultrasound = enlarged & diffusely hyperechoic (bright white)


- Castration/delmadinone acetate (tardak)

- Osaterone (virbac) = anti-androgen, prostate specific, no effect on fertility

_______________ rises before ovulation in the bitch.


Thequeen is a reflex ovulator and this determines the cycle length.

True or false?


Vaginalcytology and progesterone assays are NOT useful to decide when to mate the bitch.

True or false

FALSE - Very useful!

Femaleinfertility is most commonly due to problems with _________________.

oestrus recognition or timing of mating

Maleinfertility can have multiple causes. What are the most common?

BPH & Azoospermia

What arethe major disadvantages of neutering in the bitch?

1. Cost

2. Anesthetic risk

3. Surgical risk (e.g. hemorrhage)

4. Incontinence

5. Irreversible

For howlong after castration can a male dog continue to produce viable sperm?

Up to a MONTH

What isthe gestation length of the dog?

63 days!

What’s thegestation length of the cat?

65 days

Whichhormones maintain pregnancy in the bitch?

1. Progesterone

2. Prolactin

Methods of estrus suppression in the bitch?

If not breeding = OVH

If breeding one day = Proligestone (Delvosterone)

- May be used to permanently or temporarily postpone heat or just suppress heat temp

Method of suppressing male fertility (other than castration)?

DESLORELIN (Superlorin, Virbac)

- Synthetic GnRH, slow-releasing implant

- Lasts ~6 months

- Suppresses Testosterone production = reduced libido


Methods of pregnancy diagnosis:

1. History from owner = approx. mating date

2. Abdominal palpation

- Dogs = ~28-35days (feel vesicles popping through fingers)

- Cats (easier) = 17-25 days (can feel spherical enlargements)

3. Ultrasonography = most commonly used**

- Day 16 = early pregnancy detection possible

- Day 28 = more realistic/useful for seeing heart beat and amniotic vesicles

- Day 42 = mineralization of skeleton

4. Radiography

- Day 42 = once skeletal mineralization is complete

5. Other random tests:

- Relaxin assay (28 days) = inc when pregnant

- Acute phase proteins inc

- Physical changes = mammary development

What are the pros and cons of ultrasonography?


- Gestational age determined by vesicle diameter and crown rump length

- Assess fetal viability


- Difficult to assess numbers

Pros and cons of radiography?


- Can COUNT pups/kittens


- Exposure to radiation - avoid repeats

- Can't tell if viable/alive

Describe pseudopregnancy.

Physiologicalstate – adapted in wild to assure pups could nurse from subordinate females.

Clinical signs:

- Variable degrees of "problem behavior

- Lactation


- Palpation + U/S or X-ray to disprove pregnancy

Treatment of pseudopregnancy?

Often non required, but if owner insists conservative treatment available:

1. Anti-prolactin agents (dopamine agonist)

2. Cabergoline (galastop)

- Expensive, but effective and safe

Treatment options for mesalliance (unwanted mating) in dogs?

1. Mesalin = estradiol benzoate injection

2. Alizin = synthetic steroid that competes with progesterone at receptor

3. OVH

4. Cabergoline (oral)

5. Prostaglandins (cloprostenol)

What is Mesalin and give it's pros and cons?

Mesalliance treatment for dogs:

Estradiol benzoate injection = 2 injections on day 3 & 5 post-mating (+ day 7 if mated more than once)


- Inexpensive & can still breed animal


- Only 95% success rate

- Adverse effects: pyometra, bone marrow suppression, damage to pups if unsuccessful

What is alizin used for? Pros and cons?

Mesalliance treatment in dogs

Aglepristone injection = Syntheticsteroid that competes withprogesterone at receptor

- 2 injections,24 hours apart


- Can be used up to 42 days in pregnancy

- 99-100% effective

- Licensed

- Can still breed animal if wanted


- Stings/local tissue irritation

- Large volume needed

- Expensive

- 5% partial abortion (late) - so consider rescan to check

OVH Pros and Cons?


- No risk of recurrence

- No pyometra


- Incontinence

- Surgical/anesthetic risk

- Lactation

- Ethics - how far along are the puppies?!

- Cost

Common treatment for mesalliance in cats?

1. Agelpristone = up to 45 days of pregnancy

2. OVH = most commonly; midline approach

Male "chemical castration"

DESLORELIN (synthetic GnRH)

Best means of pregnancy diagnosis?

1. Ultrasound = 21-28 days

2. X-ray = 42 days

Estradiol, agelpristone and OVH are 3 treatments for ____________ in the dog.


You are doing a first vaccinationconsultation for an 8 week old female puppy. The owner already has an entire male adult dog and is currently keepingthe two together. The owner asks youwhat her options are for avoiding an unwanted pregnancy. •What questions do you ask? •What options could you discuss? •What advice do you give?


- Plans on breeding in the future?

- Why is male not castrated?

- Ability to separate the dogs when this puppy comes into puberty (possible between 6-23 months)


- Male castration - surgical or chemical (deslorelin)

- Female OVH or medical contraception (Proligestone - synthetic progestagen)


- If not planning on breeding then suggest surgical castration/spey, but describe pros and cons of each

- If planning on breeding than chemical castration/control is way to go, but again describe pros and cons

A client brings in their 3 year oldfemale entire Lurcher. Shehas been in season for the last few days and got out/went missing for theevening yesterday. She is not sure ifshe was mated or not but she is worried as she does not want puppies. •What questions do you ask? •What advice do you give? •If it had been 3 weeks since the possiblemating how would your advice differ?


If she was pregnant would they wantto keep the puppies? How likely she had been mated? Options:

–Aglepristone now or wait to PD first?

–OVH but ideally not in Diestrus

–Remember 50% will not be pregnant

If at 30 days = consider PD first than may give aglepristone or OVH if owners don't want puppies

What’s theincidence of pyometra in intact bitches?

25% of bitches by 10 years old

What’s“systemic inflammatory response syndrome” (SIRS)?

- Release of large numbers of inflammatory cells resulting in failure of multiple organs

- Often CAUSE of pyometra

Whateffect do prostaglandins have on the CL?


Whateffect do dopamine agonists have on prolactin production?

ANTAGONISTIC EFFECTS = Dec prolactin release

Role of oxytocin in parturition?

Stimulates myometrial contractions

Very commonand serious infection (mortality in 2-5%)

- Typicallyoccurs within 6-8 weeks of a season (diestrus), when uterus is flooded with progesterone, making the uterus moresusceptible to bacteria.


Clinical signs of Pyometra?

1. PU/PD

2. Vomiting

3. Anorexia

4. Pyrexia

5. +/- vulval discharge

6. +/- abdominal distension

What are the two types of pyometra?

Open or closed (worse)

Diagnosis of pyometra?


- Changes: hyperplastic, bumpy appearance; uterine horns engorged with pus (black)

2. CS

3. Hematology - urea/creatinine

4. Biochem

5. Radiography

Describe typical management/treatment of pyometra.

1. IV fluids

2. Systemic antibiotics = 4-6 weeks (culture = typically E. coli, staphs, or streps, due to ascending infection from vagina)

3. OVH

4. Medical treatment

- Only consider if young bitch to be used for breeding (should OVH after 1 litter), no renal compromise and no cystic endometrial hyperplasia

- Drugs:

1. Prostaglandins (induces uterine contractions to evacuate pus) + Alizin or cabergoline

2. Alizin used alone

- > 90% success rate

Often confused withpyometra, but common in pre-pubertal bitches (so pyometra not likely!)


CS, cytology and treatment of juvenile vaginitis?


1. Vulva inflamed

2. Small amount of purulent discharge


- Neutrophils +++


- Usually none required; let her have a season than OVH

Describe ovarian remnant syndrome. CS? Diagnosis? Treatment?

Ovarian tissue left behind post-OVH, resulting in Clinical signs:

- Bitch showing estrus behavior

- Attractiveness to males


1. Rule out differentials (neoplasia via blood test, anal sac disease/infection via checking anal glands, cystitis/UTI via urine sample)

2. Vaginal Cytology = estrogen

3. Progesterone testing = high levels = +ve


- Surgical removal of remnant (easiest when in estrus/diestrus)

Whelping/parturition in the bitch is initiated by:

1. Fetal stress ->

2. Cortisol release ->

3. Prostaglandin > oxytocin

Signs that whelping is imminent?

1. Progesterone <2ng/ml

2. Dec body temp (1-2C)

3. 64-66 d from LH surge

4. 56-58 days from neutrophil cytology

Briefly describe the three stages of bitch parturition.

FIRST STAGE = Cervix dilating

SECOND STAGE = Babies expelled

THIRD STAGE = Placenta expelled

In detail describe the first stage of bitch parturition. Especially the behaviors!

FIRST STAGE: Cervix dilating

a. 6-24 hoursduration (24 hours in cats)

b. Uterinecontractions

c. Cervixdilating

d. Behavior = Off food/vomiting, Hide/nest, Restless, Nesting, Panting, Vocalization& aggression (cats)

In detail, describe the second stage of parturition.


- 3-6 hours duration

- Discharge = clear

- Uterine & abdominal contractions

- Cervix fully dilated

- Pups expelled

- 30-60 mins between pups (5-60 mins in cats, but may have 12-24 hours rest between batched, especially if interupted!)

In detail, describe the third stage of parturition.


- Suckling stimulated this

- <15 mins duration

- Placenta expelled, usually after each pup, but can vary

- Try to count placentas to ensure all are expelled

What is dystocia? What breeds are predisposed? What different factors are involved with dystocia?

Abnormal ordifficult parturition

Predisposedbreeds: Bulldog,Chihuahuas, yorkies

Due to:

1. Maternalfactors (e.g. uterine inertia; not contracting properly)

2. Fetal factors(e.g. too big, malpresentation)

How does a vet diagnose dystocia?

a. Prolongedgestation (>72 hours from mating date;consider that LH surge date may be slightly off)

b. No pup after2-3 hours mild/intermittent stage 2 labor.

c. No pup after30 min HARD stage 2 labor

d. More than 4 hours between pups

What are signs of fetal compromise during parturition and what should be done?

1. Green/black/bloodyvulval discharge with no pup L

2. No/slow (<150) heartbeat on U/S

= These pups likely have no oxygen supply and mustintervene quickly = CESARIAN SECTION

Maternal complications during parturition?

1. Uterine torsion/rupture (rare)

2. Sepsis/toxemia

Common problems of the PERINATAL PERIOD?

1. Mastitis

2. Metritis

3. Eclampsia

Mastitis commonly occurs in nursing bitches. What are the CS? Likely cause? Treatment?


- Red, firm, hot & painful glands

- Express fluid


- E. coli or staph


- Drain glands

- AB (amox/clav, cephalexin)

- IVFT if required

Infection of the uterus

METRITIS - common post partum

Which animals are more predisposed to metritis?

1. Long deliveries

2. Dystocia

3. Retained fetus/placenta

CS and treatment of metritis?


1. Purulent vulval discharge

2. Depression

3. Shock


1. Fluids

2. ABs

3. PGF2alpha

4. OVH when stable

5. Don't forget about the hungry pups/kittens

Post-parturient hypocalcemia


- Toy breeds predisposed!

CS and treatment of ECLAMPSIA?


1. Restless

2. Panting

3. Muscle tremors

4. Hyperthermia

5. Dilated pupils > seizures


1. IV/SC calcium

2. Home on oral calcium & Vit D

_________________ syndrome should be considered if signs of season are seen in spayedanimal.


You are presented with an 8 year oldfemale entire crossbreed who has been dull and off food for the past 2days. The owner explains that she isstill drinking well but has not eaten any food today, she also vomited oncethis morning. What questions do youask? What findings would make yoususpicious of a pyometra?What other differential diagnoses should you consider?

General history to include:–Last season–Previous pyo/pups–Vaginal discharge seen?–Tendency to scavenge?–Vaccinated?–PU/PD?

Full clinical examination to include–Vaginal exam–Abdominal palpation–Check temperature

Findings suggestive of Pyometra–Pyrexia, Vaginal discharge, abdominaldistension, PU/PD•Avoid premature closure –lots of other differentials e.g.Diabetes Mellitus, Foreign body, Pancreatitis, Addisions, non-specific gastroenteritis, renal disease, cystitis etc etc.

Youare a recent graduate vet working. You are on call one weekendwhen you receive a call from Mrs Brown (a client of another practice) about her2 year old Staffordshire Bull Terrier Bitch “Maisie”. Mrs Brown sounds anxiousas she explains to you that Maisie has “Gone into labour too early”. What questions would you ask? What advice would you give?

•Call colleagues (Nurse, Senior Vet)•Prepare equipment for Vaginal examination (Gloves, Lubricant, +/-Speculum)•Warm cosy box for Puppies•Ultrasound Machine ready to go (Clippers, Gel, Probe) and/or X-raymachine switched on•Check Oxytocin in Fridge and look up dose•Glucometer? Calcium? IV Fluids?•Theatre: Surgical Kit, Anaesthetic machine, Drugs•Consent forms ready

5yr. old FE White Boxer = Presenting complaint:

- Bilateralsymmetrical alopecia

- Nopruritus

- Occurredin last 3 months

- Pseudo-pregnancy4 months ago

- Slightmammary gland enlargement

- Enlarged vulva

What are your differentialdiagnoses for the symmetrical alopecia?


•Sex Hormonal Imbalance = Ovarian Neoplasia, Ovarian Cyst, or Iatrogenic


•Hyperadrenocorticism (cushing’s disease)

•Seasonal Flank Alopecia


•Demodex•Dermatophytes•Folliculitis•Pemphigus foliaceous•Congenital

What findings on history andclinical examination would help you differentiate wrt the Boxer case?


- No pruritis- Lesions diffuse or regional- Confined to flank, trunk, perineum, thighs- Adult onset

Non –Endocrine

- Pruritis - Multifocal lesions - Head, face, limbs - Age of onset variable

Do you think the dermatological and reproductive findings are linked in the boxer case?

YES - The enlarged vulva and mammarydevelopment could represent normal oestrus cycle activity (though it would beunusual to get both at the same stage of the cycle), but the duration andextent of signs combined with the symmetrical alopecia would be suggestive of asex hormone imbalance