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78 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Bank Discount Yield 
Expresses the dollar discount from the par value as a fraction of the face value. 

Money Market Yield 
Makes the quoted yield on a Tbill comparable to yield quotes for interestbearing money market instruments that pay interest on 360day basis. 

Confidence Interval 
A range of values around the expected outcome within which we expect the actual outcome to be some specified percentage of the time. 

90% Confidence Interval 
1.65 

95% Confidence Interval 
1.96 

99% Confidence Interval 
2.58 

Standardization 
The process of converting an observed value for a random variable to its zvalue. 

ZValue 
The number of standard deviations a given observation is from the population mean. 

Shortfall Risk 
The probability that a portfolio value or return will fall below a particular value or return over a given time period. 

Roy's SafetyFirst Criterion 
The optimal portfolio minimizes the probability that the return of the portfolio falls below some minimum acceptable level (threshold level). 

Student's tDistribution 
A bellshaped probability distribution that is symmetrical about its mean. The appropriate distribution to use when constructing confidence intervals based on small samples from populations with unknown variance and a normal distribution. 

IncomeSavings Curve 
The negative relationship between real interest rates and real income for equilibrium in the goods market. 

LiquidityMoney Curve 
The positive relationship between real interest rates and income consistent with equilibrium in the money market. 

Neoclassical School Economists 
Believe shifts in both aggregate demand and aggregate supply are primarily driven by changes in technology over time. The economy has a strong tendency toward fullemployment equilibrium, as recession puts downward pressure on the money wage rate or as overfull employment puts upward pressure on the money wage rate. 

Keynesian School Economists 
Believe fluctuations in aggregate demand are primarily due to swings in the level of optimism of those who run businesses. Shifts in aggregate demand due to changes in expectations are primary causes of business cycles. 

New Keynesian School Economists 
Assertion that the prices of productive inputs other than labor are downward sticky, presenting additional barriers to the restoration of fullemployment equilibrium. 

Monetarist School 
Variations in aggregate demand that cause business cycles are due to variations in the rate of growth of the money supply. Recessions can be caused by external shocks or by inappropriate decreases in the money supply. 

Austrian School 
Business cycles are caused by government intervention in the economy. 

New Classical School 
Introduced real business cycle theory  the effect of real economic variables such as changes in technology and external shocks, as opposed to monetary variables, cause business cycles. 

Quantity Theory of Money 
The quantity of money is some proportion of the total spending in an economy. 

Velocity 
The average number of times per year each unit of money is used to buy goods or services. 

Liquidity Trap 
If demand for money becomes very elastic and individuals willingly hold more money even without a decrease in shortterm rates. 

International Monetary Fund 
Facilitates trade by promoting international monetary cooperation and exchange rate stability, assists in setting up international payments systems, and makes resources available to member countries with balance of payments problems. 

World Bank 
Provides lowinterest loans, interestfree credits, and grants to developing countries for many specific purposes. Provides resources and knowledge and helps form private/public partnerships with the overall goal of fighting poverty. 

World Trade Organization 
Goal of ensuring that trade flows freely and works smoothly. Main focus is on instituting, interpreting, and enforcing a number of multilateral trade agreements that detail global trade policies for a large majority of the world's trading nations. 

Elasticities Approach 
Focuses on the impact of exchange rate changes on the total value of imports and exports. 

Absorption Approach 
Analyzes the effect of a change in exchange rates focuses on capital flow. 

JCurve 
When the domestic currency depreciates, the trade deficit gets worse initially but then improves over time. 

Installment Sale 
Occurs when a firm finances a sale and payments are expected to be received over an extended period. 

Deferred Tax Assets 
Created when the amount of taxes payable exceeds the amount of income tax expense recognized in the income statement. 

Free Cash Flow to the Firm 
The cash available to all investors, both equity owners and debt holders. 

Free Cash Flow to Equity 
The cash flow that would be available for distribution to common shareholders. 

CommonSize Statements 
Normalize balance sheets and income statements and allow the analyst to more easily compare performance across firms and for a single firm over time. 

Vertical CommonSize Balance Sheet 
Expresses all balance sheet accounts as a percentage of total assets. 

Vertical CommonSize Income Statement 
Expresses all income statement items as a percentage of sales. 

pValue 
The probability of obtaining a test statistic that would lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis, assuming the null hypothesis is true.


CrowdingOut Effect 
Increased government borrowing will tend to increase interest rates, and firms may reduce their borrowing and investment spending as a result, decreasing the impact on aggregate demand of deficit spending. 

What are the three objectives of financial market regulation under IOSCO? 
1. Protect investors 2. Ensure fairness, etc. 3. Reduce systemic risk 

Prior Service Costs 
Arise when changes in the terms of a defined benefit pension plan increase the future benefits due to employees based on their prior employment with the company. 

SalesType Lease 
Treated as if the lessor sold the asset for the present value of the lease payments and provided a loan to the buyer in the same amount. 

Direct Financing Lease 
No gross profit is recognized by the lessor at the inception of the lease. 

Capitalize 
The cost as an asset on the balance sheet. 

Duration 
A measure of a bond's interest rate risk or sensitivity of a bond's full price to a change in its yield. 

Modified Duration 
Provides an approximate percentage change in a bond's price for a 1% change in YTM. 

Convenience Yield 
The value of having the physical commodity for use over the period of the futures contract. 

Contango 
If there is little or no convenience yield, futures prices will be higher than spot prices. 

Backwardation 
When the convenience yield is high, futures prices will be less than spot prices. 

Roll Yield 
The yield due to a difference between the spot price and futures price, or a difference between two futures prices with different expiration dates. 

Angel Investing 
Investments made in the "idea stage and the funds are used for business plans and assessing market potential


Seed Stage 
Investments made for product development, marketing, and market research. 

Early Stage 
Investments made to fund initial commercial production and sales. 

MezzanineStage Financing 
Capital provided to prepare the firm for an IPO. 

Put/Call Ratio Indicator 
Increases in the put/call ratio indicate a more negative outlook for the price of the asset. 

Volatility Index Indicator 
Measures the volatility of options on the S&P 500. High levels suggest investors fear declines in the stock market. 

Margin Debt Indicator 
Increases in total margin debt outstanding suggest aggressive buying by bullish investors. 

Short Interest Ratio Indicator 
High short interest ratio means investors expect the stock price to decrease and implies future buying demand when short sellers must return their borrowed shares. 

Mutual Fund Cash Position Indicator 
High mutual fund cash ratio suggests market prices are likely to increase. 

Golden Parachutes 
Rich severance packages for top managers who lose their jobs as a result of a takeover. 

Poison Pills 
Provisions that grant rights to existing shareholders in the event a certain percentage of a company's shares are acquired. 

Greenmail 
Use of corporate funds to buy back the shares of a hostile acquirer at a premium to their market value. 

Diversification Ratio 
The ratio of the risk of an equally weighted portfolio of n securities to the risk of a single security selected at random from n securities. 

Capital Allocation Line 
The line of possible portfolio risk and return combinations given the riskfree rate and the risk and return of a portfolio of risky assets. 

Capital Market Line 
Optimal CAL for all investors. Expected portfolio return is a linear function of portfolio risk. 

Security Market Line 
The relationship between risk and return for individual assets using covariance as a measure of systematic risk. 

Statutory Voting 
Each share held is assigned one vote in the election of each member of the board of directors. 

Cumulative Voting 
Shareholders can allocate their votes to one or more candidates as they choose. 

Notching 
Credit rating agency practice of assigning ratings to debt issues that differ from the issuer's credit rating. 

Trade Sale 
Selling a portfolio company to a competitor or another strategic buyer. 

Water Mark Fees 
Based on increases in investors' accounts above their highest previous value. 

Hurdle Rate 
Minimum return a fund must achieve in a given period before fund managers receive incentive fees. 

2and20 Structure 
Fund managers receive a 2% management fee and a 20% incentive fee. 

Unbiased Estimator 
Has an expected value equal to the true value of the population parameter. 

Consistent Estimator 
More accurate the greater the sample size. 

Efficient Estimator 
Has the sample distribution that is less than that of any other unbiased estimator. 

Nash Equilibrium 
The choices of all firms are such that there is no other choice that makes any firm better off. 

Confirmation Bias 
The tendency to search for, interpret, or recall information in a way that confirms one's beliefs or hypotheses. 

Escalation Bias

Putting more money into a failure that they feel responsible for rather than into a success. 

ZeroVolatility Spread 
Measure of the spread that the investor would realize over the entire Treasury spot rate curve if the bond is held to maturity. 