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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Propagate energy and momentum across space time

Oscillate back and forth across equilibrium position
Distance of maximum displacement from equilibrium
Distance between two similar wave structures

ex. Crest to crest, trough to trough
Time it takes to complete one full cycle

AKA time to complete one wavelength
(in seconds)
Inverse of period

Number of cycles completed in one second
Hertz = 1/second
Transverse waves
Oscillation is perpendicular to wave propagation

Only occur in solids
Examples of transverse waves
Seismic waves
Ripples in a pond
Longitudinal waves
Oscillation is parallel to propagation

Areas of compression and rarefaction

Can occur in solids, liquids, gases
Wavelength (of longitudinal waves)
From one compression to another compression
From one rarefaction to another
Examples of longitudinal waves
Seismic waves
Sound waves
Standing waves
Occur in fixed medium
Amplitude is twice distance of medium
Second harmonic
"1st excited state"

Amplitude is distance of medium
Third harmonic
"2nd excited state"

Amplitude is 2/3 distance of medium
Fourth harmonic
"3rd excited state"

Amplitude is 1/2 distance of medium
What occurs when to wave forms meet and interact

two kinds
Two similar wave structures meet

Either crest to crest, or trough to trough

Amplitudes added
Opposite wave structures meet

Crest to trough

Amplitudes subtracted
Special kind of wave interference when waves of different frequencies meet. areas of constructive interference, and areas of destructive interference
Doppler effect
Perception effect of waves - as you get farther from wave source, frequency appears differently

Police use in radar guns
When a wave meets a barrier or obstacle
Seismic waves
What happens during Earthquakes, 2 kinds
Transverse wave in Earth
Longitudinal wave in Earth
Sound waves
Type of longitudinal wave

Can travel in solids, liquids, and gases
Related to amplitude of sound wave

How compressed or rarefacted the wave is
Related to frequency of sound wave

How fast the wave is going

Sound travels fastest through solids
J.J. Thompson
Determined electrons are negatively charged through cathode ray experiment
Electric charge
Positives and negatives

Opposite charges attract
Like charges repel
Electrostatic charge
Charges are stationary

still have forces between them
Charging mechanisms
Ways to charge objects

3 ways
Adds or takes away charges from objects

Ex. rub socks on carpet
Releasing accumulated charges onto an object
When a charged object interacts with a neutral object

Charges in neutral object will redistribute
Materials in which charge can easily flow
Materials in which charge is not free to move
Usually mixtures of different materials and charges can flow, but not easily
Torsion balance
Device used to measure tiny sources between charges
Coulomb's law
Created by Coulomb to study interaction between charges

Coulomb force can be attractive or repulsive
Universal gravitation
Similar to Coulomb Law

Pair-wise interaction

Gravity always attracts
4 steps to solving Coulomb interaction problems
1. Find the distance ratio

2. Square it

3. Does force increase or decrease

4. Multiply or divide original force by your # in step 2
Coulomb constant
6.24 x 10^18

# of electrons or protons in one coulomb
Fundamental charge
1.602 x 10^-19

amount of charge on one proton or electron
Electric field
An abstraction

measured "forces" that would be around an isolated charge
Source charge
Charge you are studying
Test charge
Positive charge

Looking at the interaction between that positive charge and the source charge
Periodic table
List of all elements

In pattern based on their properties
Atomic number
Smaller # usually

Tells you # of protons in an atom of that element

Also gives you # of electrons in NEUTRAL form of that element
Atomic weight
larger # usually

Number of protons and neutrons

Atomic weight - atomic # = neutrons
Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
Atoms of the same element that have a different number of electrons
Half life
Amount of time for exactly half of a sample to decay