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85 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What term does the state pertain to? "As randomized, so analyzed" 
Intent to Treat 

What is the difference between Relative Risk and Odds Ratio 
RR: proportion; compares an event in relation to all the events Odds Ratio: ratio of ratios; compares events with non events 

What 3 criteria must be present in experimental research? 
1. cause must precede effect 2. cause and effect must be correlated 3. correlation cant be explained by another variable 

T/F
Compliant subjects usually have better outcomes than noncompliant subjects regardless of treatment 
True 

Describe a Cohort Study 
Prospective 

Describe a Case Control Study 
retrospective 

Describe Efficacy and Effectiveness in RCTs 
Efficacy refers to those that received treatment Effectiveness refers to those who were offered treatment
Efficacy excludes noncompliers 

Describe internal and external validity 
Internal: Did it make a difference?
External: Can it be applied 

Describe the 'last assessment point carried forward' technique 
Used for noncompliant data, take the last assessment point before they dropped out and carry it forward to each assessment check point 

What are the two ways of dealing with noncompliers? 
1. implement strategies to minimize withdrawal 2. report lost data in a flow diagram 

Describe the psychological theory of the placebo 
It's not the treatment that works, it's the belief that it will work
Irving Kirsch Antidepressant study 

Which study discussed in class emphasizes the subjective nature of pain 
Talbot, 2000 Wisdom Teeth 

Describe the processoftreatment theory 
showing attention and care for the patient triggers physical reactions that reduce stress and promote healing 

what is the gold standard study for epidemiology work? 
Cohort 

What is the key feature of a cohort study? 
time 

What are the 2 types of epidemiological study designs and their subcategories? Define each. 
Descriptive: Cross Sectional (look at the mean difference) and Ecological (existing data sets; compare/contrast rate of disease in specific popn) Analytical: CaseControl and Cohort (individuals with disease are selected and their exposure is traced back in time) 

Is a cross sectional design prospective or retrospective? 
retro. 

Is a case control design prospective or retrospective? 
retro. 

Is a cohort design prospective or retrospective? 
pro. 

What is the limitation of the cross sectional design? 
outcome measured at a single time point 

What are 3 limitations of an ecological design? 
Levelof analysis is the population rather than the individual. Unableto control for the effects of other factors that could obscure the relationship
Only useful at testing initial hypotheses about exposure 

The Morris et al Occupational Physical Activity Study is an example of __________ study design. 
Ecological. 

The Paffenbarger et al. Harvard Alumni study (PA and heart attack levels) is an example of ________ study design. 
Cohort. 

The Fish Oil study was a ________ design 
Cohort. 

What are the pros and cons of a cohort study? 
Pros: Temporal sequence, multiple effects Cons: time, money, loss to follow up, rare disease 

An odds ratio calculation is used in ______ study 
case control and cohort 

incidence rate and relative risk calculations are used in _______ study. 
cohort 

What does an odds ratio of 0.30 mean? 
There is a 70% reduced risk in the disease 

What are the pros and cons of a case control study? 
Pros: valid estimate of exposure disease, $ Cons: temporal sequencing not ideal, recall bias, recruit control participants 

What are the equations for Relative risk and Odds Ratio? 
RR=[(a/a+b)/(c/c+d)] Odds Ratio=[(a/c)/(b/d)] 

What are the 3 criteria for experimental research? 
1. Cause must precede effect 2. cause and effect must be correlated 3. Correlation cannot be explained by another variable 

What are the 4 phases of a clinical trial? 
1. Small number of patients; emphasis on how drug should be given (dose, frequency) 2. Proof of principle: safety and how well it works 3. Large number of patients; compare to the current standard (RCT) 4. Large number of patients; drug already being marketed; Evaluate long term side effects, risks and benefits 

What is the difference between effectiveness and efficacy? 
Effective> on those offered Efficacy> on those who receive it 

What is the difference between internal and external validity? 
Internal: did the treatment make a difference External: can it be applied 

What is the process of treatment theory? 
Showing attention, and care to a patient triggers a physical reaction in the body that promotes healing 

What is the Hawthorne effect? 
Subjects improve their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed 

Pygmalion effect "selffulfilling prophecy" 
the greater the expectation placed upon people, the better they perform 

What is Relative Risk? 
the dif btw event rates in relative terms 

How do we calc RRR 
ARR/control 

How do we calc ARR? 
TreatmentControl 

What is Absolute Risk? 
The actual difference in event rates 

How do we calc NNT? 
1 or 100/ ARR 

What is the event rate? 
the # of people experiencing an event as a proportion of the # of people in the population 

What are two ways to collect qualitative data? 
Analytical narrative: Short interpretive description Narrative vignette: Detailed description that conveys a sense of holisticmeaning 

What is trustworthiness? 
quality achieved in a study when the datacollected generally are applicable, consistent, and natural Is the study competently conducted? 

What are the 4 techniques for determining trustworthiness? 
1. Triangulation: need three sources of data 2. Consensual Validation: isthe process of achieving mutual agreement between analysts relative to finalorder of each quote and theme 3. Reliability Check: have someone work backwards—theindependent analyst proceeds sequentially to categorize the quotes into theappropriate lower order levels and themes 4. Data Saturation: occurs when the researcher is nolonger hearing or seeing new information 

What is the gold standard for measuring PAEE in the freeliving environment? 
Doubly Labelled Water (DLW) 

What is the most accurate (objective) measurements of PA and Body composition? 
Actical and iDEXA 

How do you calc effect size? 
(Mean of expmean of control)/ SD of control 

Describe the relationship btw effect size, sample size and power 
as ES increases, N decreases for the same power 

How does changing the P value influence sample size? 
Reducing the P value means we need to increase our sample size 

What does an alpha of .05 mean? 
there is a 5% chance that the data is due to random variability, and a 95% chance that it is not. 

What does a power of .8 mean? 
If the study was conducted again, there is an 80% chance that the same result would be found. 

What are the equations for eta and omega? 


What is the coefficient of determination? 
one variable can predict a % of the scores from the other variable 

Define moderation and mediation 
Moderation: Underwhat conditions does X relate to Y? (A third variable) Mediation: Whydoes variable X relate to Y under some conditions but not others? 

What is a type 1 error 
reject the null when the hypothesis is True (There is no difference but we think there is) 

What is a type 2 error 
Not reject the null when the hypothesis is False (There is a difference but we think there isn't) 

Define effect size. 
ES is meaningfulness. It deals the with strength and magnitude of the finding 

Define Power 
Poweris the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis isfalse (e.g., detecting a real difference) 

Define Coefficient of Determination 
The coefficient of determinationindicates the portion of total variance in one measure that can be explained,or accounted for, by the variance in the other measure (% of overlap) 

Advantages (4) and disadvantages (2) of a casestudy 
Advantages Emphasis on helping Indepth analysis of how the variables affect each other More informative $ Dis. External validity Opportunity for bias 

What does equivocal mean? 
not clear cut 

What type of study was used for the Rifle Shooter? 
Case Study 

what is the difference btw a case study and a single subject design? 
Case study uses one person, single subject design uses a small number of people 

What are the advantages (6) and disadvantages of a single subject design? 
Advantages Focus on measurement of consistency acrosstrials Small n ID within and btw subject changes Everyone receives the intervention Not hampered by statistical assumptions Emphasis on socialvalidation Dis. 

What is the key feature of a Single Subject Design? 
ongoing assessment for consistency 

How do you calculate interobserver reliability? 
dividethe smaller total of the dependent variable by one observer by the larger totalrecorded by the second observer and then multiply by 100 

Describe the 3 types of single subject designs 
1. Replication Reversal (ABAB): Light switch; turn treatment on and off 2. Multiple Baseline: Baseline gets progressively longer 3. Alternating Treatment: Compares more than one treatment intervention 

Why is visual analysis of data advantageous? 
if it’s large enough to see it’s likely to be significant 

WHat are 3 statistical tests used in Single Subject Designs? 
1. Split Method: Atrend line is made in the baseline and then extended into the interventionperiod.Comparethe proportion of data points above and below the line across the two phases. 2. Two SD method:calculatevariability around the mean, 2points above the SD in the treatment phase indicates a change in performance. 3. Trend (Time Series Analysis): Compare slopes of line of best fits 

Epidemiological research is _________ not _______ 
Observational not experimental 

Epidemiology research is used to provide the scientificbackbone for public health endeavors, including: 
Magnitude of the problem risk factors allocate resources monitor prevention strategies 

Descriptive vs Analytical 
D: general observations of disease relationship to demographics A: test specific hypotheses using purely observational methods 

What study was the first time epidemiology was used to link levels of PA to disease? 
Harvard Alumni, Paffenbarger et al Examining activity levels and rates of heart attacks 

Clinical Trial 
test whether one health care interventionis superior to another 

Selection Bias 
Occurswhen groups are formed on some basis other than random assignment. Thus, whentreatments are administered, because the groups were different to begin with>rivalhypothesis that differences are due to the initial selection biasesrather than treatment 

How do we deal with withdrawl in an ITT analysis 
 Designtrial to minimize withdrawal Accuratelyreport withdrawal Analyticapproaches (lastobservation carried forward, other imputation techniques) canbe used to reduce, but not remove the effect of withdrawal 

Hawthorne effect 
Feeling of being studied=perform better 

Pygmalion Effect 
greater the expectation placed upon people, the better they perform 

Expectancy Bias 
refersto the experimenters’ or researchers’ anticipating that certain participantswill perform better 

How do you calc RRR 
1(treated/untreated) Or ARR/control 

How do you calc ARR 
treateduntreated 

How do you calc NNT? 
1 or 100/ ARR 

Statistical Sign. Clinical Sign. 
Stat: is this difference likely to be real (not due to chance) Clinic: is this difference likely to meet the measurement criteria 