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24 Cards in this Set

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Type 1 error

When the null is rejected and alternative is accepted when it should have been the other way round

What is the most common error (type 1 or 2) and why?

Type 1, more pessimistic, if significant level is too high like 0.01

Name the 'choosing a statistical test' table

Chi-squared, sign test, chi


Man Whitney, Wilcoxon, spear


Unrelated t-test, related, persons r

Name the unrelated design experimental design

Independent groups

Name the related design experimental design

Repeated measures


Matched pairs

What is validity?

The extent to which an observed effect is genuine

Improving methods: Qualitative

-Higher ecological validity over quantitative


-in depth and rich


-however, researcher has to make sure the researchers interpretation of events matches their participants

Improving validity: Observation

-high ecological validity as minimal interventions by the researcher


-covert, researcher remains undetected


-behavioural categories can't overlap or be too ambiguous

Improving validity: Experimental Research

-use a control group, ex lombrosso had no control so lacks validity


-double blind procedures

Improving validity: Questionnaires

-incorporate a lie scale to assess the consistency of a respondents response and controls affects of social desirability


-tell respondents they'll remain anonymous

What is the definition of reliability?

Refers to how consistent the findings from an investigation or measuring device are

Assessing reliability: 2 types

-test retest, issue same questionnaire twice. Wait considerable time for second test so participant doesn't remember questions but not too long that beliefs or opinions change


-inter rater reliability, observation in teams of at least two, watch same thing but observe separately. Pilot study may be used first to test behavioural categories, if each observer gets very similar results it gives the findings more reliability

Improving reliability: Questionnaires

-used test retest, should produce two sets of data with a correlation exceeding +0.8


-if questions are too complex, replace open questions with closed, easier to analyse

Improving reliability: Interviews

-use same interviewer each time or train each person I.e avoid leaning questions


-structured interviews

Improving reliability: Experiments

-lab experiments, researcher has control over many aspects


-lab is easier to replicate

Improving reliability: Observations

-behavioural categories are operationalised and measurable


-categories should not overlap


-if this doesn't happen observer will have to make their own judgement

What is a case study?

An in depth investigation, description and analysis of a single individual, group, institution or event.


Normally produces qualitative

Case study: Strengths

-Rich


-Detailed insights


-More real


-Contribute to our understanding of 'normal functioning' Ex. HM found existence of separate STM and LTM stores

Case study: Weaknesses

-Generalisations of findings


-Small sample sizes


-Based on subjective selection and interpretation of researcher


-Personal accounts may not be accurate, especially if childhood stories

Content analysis: Strengths

-Gets around ethical issues of normal studies as research already in the public domain


-Also flexible, qualitative and quantitative date

Content analysis: Weaknesses

-studied outside the context it occurred, may interpret words how originally they weren't meant (researcher bias).

Stages of a scientific report

-Abstract, 200 words long, key details of the research report


-Introduction, includes hypothesis and aims


-Method, what researchers did includes procedure and ethics


-Results, what researcher found, statistics and data


-Discussion, what results tell us in terms of psychological theory


-References, sources that are referred to or quoted

Improving methods: 4

Qualitative


Observations


Experiments


Questionnaires

Improving reliability:

Questionnaires


Interviews


Observations


Experiment