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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an important goal of the nursing profession related to research?
to deliver the highest possible quality care in a compassionate manner, while also being mindful of costs. The ultimate goal is to develop, refine, and expand a base of knowledge
What is a current priority of clinical nursing research
the promotion of excellence in nursing science
How is scientific knowledge generated
·Tradition and authority
·Clinical experience and intuition
·Trial and error
·Assembled information: the use of bench marking data and quality improvement and risk data
·Disciplined research: the most sophisticated method. This tends to be more reliable than other methods
What is inductive reasoning
Inductive reasoning is going from specific observations to make a more generalized assumption. EX: All observed crows are black,. therefore all crows are black
What is deductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning is going from a generalized observation to a more specific assumption. EX: All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal.
characteristics of the qualitative research approach
It focuses on the dynamic, holistic, and individual aspects of phenomena and attempts to capture those aspects in their entirety, within the context of those who are experiencing them.
Applied Research
focuses on finding solutions to existing problems
Basic Research
undertaken to extend the base of knowledge in a discipline, or to formulate or refine a theory
A basic principle that is accepted as being true based on logic or reason, but w/o proof or verification
A prediction, usually a statement of predicted relationships between variables. (must be measurable to be testable)
The section of a research report that explains any flaws in the research design
A proposition is a statement whose correctness (or otherwise) is to be shown by the use of an argument
Quantitative research is to numbers as qualitative research is to ___
What responsibility does every professional nurse have regarding research?
to engage in one or more research activity along a continuum or research participation
What are terms used to describe people who participate in research studies
In quantitative: subjects or study participants or they may be called respondents.

In qualitative research: informants, key informants, or study participants
What are the “Building blocks” of theory?
What is a continuous variable?
A quantitative variable with an infinite number of attributes. FOR EXAMPLE, distance or length
What is an inherent/ attribute variable?
A trait or characteristic of people such as age, blood type, or height.
what is an extraneous variable?
contaminating factors, any variable other than the independent variable that could cause a change in the dependent variable
what is a Categorical variable
variable that records a category destination; also called a qualitative variable For example, if you were to record the gender of your class members, gender would be a categorical variable because the class members are either in the female category or in the male category
What is an independent variable?
the presumed cause
what is A dependent variable?
the presumed effect
What is a research design?
The overall plan for addressing a research question, including specifications for enhancing the study’s integrity
What is the difference between a study sample and a study population
A study population is all the individuals or objects with common, defining characteristics. The sample is the subset of the population. The sample should be representative of the greater population. The population could be all, say 1500 nurses in X city, but the sample could be 800 nurses from that population
What is a conceptual definition?
The abstract or theoretical meaning of the concept being studied.
What is an operational definition?
The definition of a concept or variable in terms of the procedures by which it is to be measured.
Where are nurses (typical staff nurses) most likely to find research results?
nurses are most likely to be exposed to research results at professional conferences or in journals
What are the two styles that you may find abstracts written in?
Traditional: single paragraphs summarizing the main features of the study.

New: slightly longer and more informative than the traditional narrative style with specific headings
In a research report, what is found in the introduction section?
An overview of the research problem and its context. It includes the central phenomena, concepts, or variables; the statement of purpose, research questions, and /or hypotheses to be tested; a review of the related literature; the theoretical framework; the significance and need for the study.
The methods section?
Describes the methods that the researcher used to answer the research question. It tells about the major methodologic decisions and may offer rationales for those decisions. It will include: the research design; the sample, measures and data collection, and study procedures
The results section?
includes the research findings. There is a narrative summary of the findings, often accompanied by tables or figures that highlight the most noteworthy results. In quantitative studies, the information may contain: the name of statistical tests used, the vale of the calculated statistic, and the significance.
The discussion section?
The researcher draws conclusions about the meaning and the implications of the findings.
What does it mean when a research report says the findings are ”statistically significant”
based on the statistical test, the findings are probably reliable and replicable with a new group of people
Where do researchers get ideas for their research studies?
Researchers often begin with interests in a broad topic area and then develop the topic into a more specific researchable problem.
What is the purpose of a research hypothesis?
A hypothesis translates a research question into a prediction of expected outcomes. Pg 120: The use of hypotheses in quantitative studies tends to induce critical thinking an to facilitate interpretations of the data.
A research Hypothesis
statements of actual expected relationships between variables.
a null hypothesis
states that there is no relationship between the independent variables and dependant variables
A simple hypothesis
predicts a relationship between a single independent variable and a single dependent variable
Complex hypothesis
predicts the relationship between two or more independent variables or two or more dependent variables
Directional hypothesis
predicts the expected direction of the relationship between variables
Non-directional hypothesis
does not stipulate the direction of the relationship between variables, it only stipulates that there IS a relationship
What is the purpose of a literature review for quantitative researchers:
can help identify a research problem and refine research questions or hypotheses; helps with orientation to what is known and not known; helps determine gaps or inconsistencies in a body of research; identifies new clinical interventions to test; identifies relevant theoretical or conceptual frameworks for a research problem; determines suitable designs and data collection methods; helps gain insight for interpreting study findings and developing implications
What is the purpose of a literature review for grounded theory researchers:
researchers collect data BEFORE doing the lit review
What is the purpose of a literature review for Phenomenologists
often undertake a search for relevant materials at the outset of a study.
What is the purpose of a literature review for Ethnographers?
review the literature to help shape their choice of a cultural problem before going into the field.
What is the purpose of a literature review for Non Researchers?
helps acquire knowledge on a topic, helps evaluate current practices and make recommendations for change; helps develop evidence based clinical protocols; helps develop a theory or conceptual framework; helps develop or revise nursing curricula; helps develop policy statements and practice guidelines
Describe research articles
an article about actual research
opinion articles
an article in which the author presents an opinion about a topic
anecdotal articles
an informal account of evidence in the form of an anecdote
What is the correct form for a literature review?
The lit review is an objective and thorough summary of the current state of evidence on a topic. It should point out consistencies and contradictions in the literature and offer explanations about inconsistencies. It should be summarized in the researchers own words and should not omit research that conflicts with the researchers own hunches or values. The only opinions that the researcher should insert into the lit review are those that assess the quality of the study
What is CINAHL?
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature.
How does a researcher begin an electronic literature search?
with a subject search.
What is primary source?
descriptions of studies written by the researchers who conducted them.
What is A secondary source?
Descriptions of studies prepared by someone other than the original researcher.
What are the three ethical principles involved in the conduct of research?
Respect for Human Dignity
Describe informed consent
participants have adequate information regarding the research; comprehend the information; and have the power of free choice, enabling them to consent voluntarily to participate in the research or decline participation.
What is the difference between anonymity and confidentiality?
34. What is the difference between anonymity and confidentiality? Pg 95
Anonymity: this occurs when even the researcher cannot link a participant with his or her data. EX: if a researcher distributed questionnaires to a group of nursing home residents and asked that they be returned w/o any identifying information, the responses would be anonymous.
Confientialtiy: is a pledge that any information the participant provides will not be publicly reported or made accessible to parties not involved in the research.
What is the IRB and what is its purpose?
Institutional Review Board. These are formal committees for reviewing research plans.
Research problem
a situation involving an enigmatic, perplexing, or conflictual condition that can be investigated through disciplined inquiry.
Research purpose
the researcher’s summary of the overall goal.
an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about how phenomena are interrelated.
an abstraction based on observations of—or inferences from—behaviors or characteristics
Theoretical framework
the conceptual underpinnings of a study. In a study based on a theory, the framework is referred to as the theoretical framework
Conceptual framework
A study that has its roots in a specified conceptual model.
Schematic framework
represents a phenomenon of interest in a diagram
Self Care Model: self care activities are what people do on their own behalf to maintain health and well being; the goal of nursing is to help people meet their own therapeutic self care
Adaptation Model: Humans are adaptive systems that cope with change through adaptation; nursing helps to promote client adaptation during health and illness
Health Promotion Model: a conceptual map
characteristics of experimenta design
manipulation of independent variable; control group; randomization
characteristics of quasi-experimental designs?
manipulation of independent variable; no randomization and/or no comparison group
characteristics of Preexperimental designs?
manipulation of independent variable; no randomization or no comparison group; limited control over extraneous variables
No manipulation of independent variable
a branch of human inquiry, associated with anthropology, which focuses on the culture of a group of people, with an effort to understand their world view.
has its disciplinary roots in both philosophy and psychology, is concerned with the lived experiences of humans. Phenomenology is an approach to thinking about what life experiences of people are like and what they mean.
Grounded theory
developed in the 1960’s by two sociologists (Glaser and Strauss) seeks to describe and understand the key social psychological and structural processes that occur in a social setting. Most grounded theory studies focus on an evolving social experience-the social and psychological stages and phases that characterize a particular event or episode. A major component of grounded theory is the discovery of a core variable (or core category) that is central in explaining what is going on in the social scene.
Both are systemic in approach
Not generalisable
Both are systemic in approach
What are clinical trials designed to do
They are studies designed to assess the effectiveness of clinical interventions.
non experimental research in which information regarding the activities, beliefs, preferences, and attitudes of people is gathered via direct questioning.
Evaluation research
used to find out how well a program, treatment, practice, or policy works. Clinical trials are sometimes evaluations
Process analysis
undertaken to obtain descriptive information about the process of implementing a new program or procedure and about its functioning in actual operation.
Outcome analysis
documents the extent to which the goals of a program are attained, as a means of obtaining preliminary evidence about program success.
Impact analysis
attempts to identify the impacts or net effects of an intervention. Impact analyses use an experimental or quasi experimental design because their goal is to attribute a causal connection between outcomes and the intervention.
Cost benefit analysis
used to determine whether the monetary benefits of a program outweigh the costs
Methodologic research
examines methods of obtaining and analyzing data and addresses the development, validation, and evaluation of research tools or methods. Most are descriptive and non-experimental, but occasionally quantitative researchers use an experimental or quasi experimental design to test competing methodological strategies.
Secondary analysis
involves the use of data gathered in a previous study to test new hypotheses or explore new phenomena or relationships. In a typical study, researchers collect far more data than are actually analyzed. Secondary analysis of existing data is efficient and economical because data collection is typically the most time consuming and expensive part of a research project.
What is the most cost effective approach to survey research
Which type of survey research gives the richest data?
Personal interviews
How does one begin a research utilization project?
With the emergence of research findings on a topic.
How does one begin an evidenced based practice project?
By searching for the best evidence to address clinical problems.
Conceptual utilization
situations in which users are influenced in their thinking about an issue based on their knowledge of studies but do not put this knowledge to any specific, documentable use.
Persuasive utilization
the use of findings to persuade others to make changes in policies or practices relevant to nursing care.
Instrumental utilization
refers to discrete, clearly identifiable attempts to base specific actions on research findings.
In evidenced based practice hierarchies, which level represents the highest level of evidence?
most evidence hierarchies rank meta analyses of RCT studies at the pinnacle and other types of non-research evidence (like clinical expertise) at the base.