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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chronic abacterial prostatitis
more than 10 WBCs/hpf
no bacteria isolated

possible organisms: mycoplasma hominis, chlamydia trachomatis, ureaplasma urealyticum

PSA levels often slightly elevated
immature teratoma
primative neuroepithelial cells or developing skeletal muscle cells are seen

(mature contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands)
zona pellucida
surrounds the ovum
stains bright pink with PAS
acellular, contains glycoproteins and polysaccharides
*binding of sperm triggers acrosome reaction
->digests zona pellucida and allows spermatazoan to contact and fuse w/ovum cell membrane
Bartholin's gland cyst
3-5 cm cyst in labia majora, typically sequelae to previous infection
lined by transitional epi or metaplastic squamous epi
dysfunctional uterine bleeding
most common cause is anovulation
[excessive estrogen without post-ovulatory progesterone]
usually occurs around menarche or menopause
histo: proliferative endothelium with stromal breakdown
monozygotic twins
monochorionic diamniotic placenta
marker expressed by leiomyoma cells
smooth-muscle actin
placental alkaline phosphatase
produced by seminomas [dysgerminomas]

used for Dx and follow up
role of prolactin in the male
prolactin receptors are on Leydig cells, and stimulates testosterone production
excessive PRL reduces # of LH receptors
Leydig cell tumors
can secrete androgens, estrogens or corticosteroids (rare)
can present w/gynecomastia
golden brown testicular tumor, large uniform cells w/indistinct borders, and rod-shaped crystals
Klinefelter's syndrome
few symptoms before puberty
seminiferous tubules fail to enlarge and undergo fibrosis/hyalinization
leydig cells are hyperplastic and clumped together-> decreased testosterone secretion
increased LH levels, leads to estrogen production
increased FSH due to low inhibin
Bowen's disease
in-situ penile carcinoma
opaque, grey-white relatively flat penile plaque
histo: dysplastic squamous epi
10% risk of progressing to invasive squamous cell CA
maternal blood levels of _____ are dependant on a viable fetus
estriol [produced by fetal adrenal cortex and liver]
most common causes of maternal death in pre-eclampsia
cerebral hemorrhage and adult respiratory distress syndrome
malignant mixed muellerian tumor
stromal and epithelial components
rare and highly aggressive
25% 5 year survival rate
usually affects older women
competative antagonist at androgen receptors

used for prostate CA Tx

often used with GnRH analogues
complete androgen resistance
XY and testes
but developed female phenotype in-utero
but vagina ends in blind sac b/c mullerian regression factor from testes prevents uterus formation
no pubic or axillary hair
but breasts do develop
Krukenberg tumor
ovarian mets of a mucin producing adenocarcinoma
bilateral ovarian involvement
usually from GI primary
only 5% of ovarian malignancies
amenorrhea and hirsuitism (excessive ovarian androgen production)
increased LH, low FSH
theca cell hyperplasia + granulosa cell atrophy
numerous cystic follicles present
Paget disease of the nipple
inflammation, pigmentation and eczematoid changes
often indicates underlying adenocarcinoma
initial event in pathogenesis of preeclampsia
placental ischemia
breast cancer with the best prognosis
tubular carcinoma
women < 50
well formed tubules that are very well differentiated
<10% have axillary mets
seminomas have elevated _____
posterior fornix of the vagina is in contact with...
the floor of the rectouterine space
endometrial glands w/in the myometrium of the uterus
undergo cyclic changes w/menstruation
presents w/ pain and ultrasound with myometrial thickening
location of deep inguinal ring
1/2 inch above midpoint of the inguinal ligament

(indirect inguinal hernias enter the inguinal canal thru this)
cryptorchidism is ass'd with an increased risk of ____
testicular carcinoma (usually in 30s)
precocious puberty is associated with
glomerulosa cell tumors (secrete high levels of estrogen)
pathophys of hydrocele of spermatic cord
incomplete fusion of the processes vaginalis
communication btwn epididymis and tunica vaginalis
fat necrosis
multinucleated giant cells

usually as a result of trauma or following surgery
Meig's syndrome
R sided hydrothorax, ascites and ovarian tumor [usually fibroma]

low back pain and stretching or pulling sensation are characteristic of ascites
most common site of fertilization
ampulla of uterine tube
structures in the deep perineal space of males
spincter urethrae muscle
deep transverse perineal muscle
bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland

*in the region of the middle layer of the urogenital diaphragm
lymphatic drainage of the testes
para-aortic nodes

(b/c they arise high in the abdomen)

**also know the drainage of colon cancers
->below pectineal line = inguinal [palpable] nodes
->above = iliac nodes