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56 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is septic metritis

a. Acute, ascending bacterial infection of the uterus usually caused by E. coli at the sites of placental attachment
What are the risk factors for septic metritis

a. Obstetric manipulations during dystocia, abortion, retained fetal or placental tissue, and uterine prolapse
What are the clinical signs of septic metritis

a. Fever over 103, dehydration, anorexia, depression, malodorous sanguineous vaginal discharge
How is septic metritis diagnosed

a. Painful, large uterus on palpation, vaginal cytology with denegerate neutrophils, elevated total solids, left shift or leukopenia, , ultrasound to look for retained placentas or mummified fetuses
What is the treatment for septic metritis

a. Removal of offspring, intravenous fluids, broand-spectrum antibiotics, prostaglanding F2 alpha (can cause diarrhea, emesis, hypersalivation); OHE is recommended when stable
What is agalactia

a. Complete failure of mammary gland development or failure of milk to let down (secondary).
What are the possible reasons for agalactia

a. Debilitated dams, malnutrition, and endocrine imbalances. Stress can suppress the pituitary gland from secreting oxytocin.
How is agalactia treated

a. Acepromazine promotes prolactin secretion which may increase oxytocin release; oxytocin
What is acute septic mastitis

a. Ascending bacterial infection involving one or more mammary glands
What are the clinical signs of mastitis

a. Fever, anorexia, dehydration, painful/firm/ and reddened mammary glands. Expressed mammary secretions are sticky, chunky, and discolored
Bacteria that generally cause mastitis include what organisms

a. Staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli
How is this diagnosed

a. Culture of mammary secretions and response to antibiotic therapy (generally cefadroxil because it does not affect the nursing offspring)
How is mastitis treated

a. Should try to let offspring nurse as can help resolution, avoid nursing if dam is severely ill. If dam is ill, give cabergoline to prevent lactation. Warm compresses 2-3 times a day, ultrasound to look for pockets of fluid that may need surgical intervention
What is purpural tetany

a. Postpartum hypocalcemia or eclampsia that develops less than 28 days after delivery
What breeds are most affected by purpural tetany

a. Small breed dogs (lower incidence in queens)
What are the predisposing factors for purpural tetany

a. Diets high in calcium, high in animal protein, cereals with phytates (binds ionized calcium making it biologically unavailable) may predispose to puerperal tetany
What are the clinical signs of puepural tetany

a. Restlessness, whining, panting, salivation, anorexia, vomiting, and muscle fasicultations, stiffness, ataxia, tonic-clonic muscle spasms, hyperthermia, tachycardia, seizures and death
What is the treatment for purpural tetany

a. Supplementation of calcium gluconate, sometimes oral supplementation of vitamin D is recommended
What are some general approximations to how much weight a bitch should gain during pregnancy and how much of their maintenance diet they should be eating to meet their needs during pregnancy and lactation

a. Should gain 15-25% weight and should be eating 150% of their maintenance calories
b. During peak lactation, a bitch will likely need 3-4 times her maintenance calorie amounts
How much of the diet should be carbohydrate based to avoid hypoglycemia

a. 20%
When is pyometra most likely to occur

a. Estrogen-primed uterus during the period of progesterone dominance (diestrus) or thereafter (anestrus)
b. Most commonly diagnosed in an intact bitch 4 weeks to 4 months after an estrous cycle.
Why is pyometra not as common in the queen

a. Induced ovulators and does not experience repetitive estrogen and progesterone influences on the uterus
Does having given birth previously have a protective effect on bitches

a. Yes, reduced incidence of pyometra in certain breeds such as Rottweiler, collie, and lab but not in the golden retriever
What is the pathogenesis for pyometra

a. Estrogen stimulation followed by prolonged periods of progesterone dominance. Progesterone results in endometrial proliferation, glandular secretion, and decreased myometrial contractions. Leukocyte inhibition in the progesterone-primed uterus tends to support bacterial growth.
What are the four phases of cystic endometrial hyperplasia

a. Stage 1= uncomplicated CEH, stage 2=endometrial infiltration of plasma cells, stage 3= acute endometritis, and stage 4= chronic endometritis
What drug is associated with a greatly increased risk for pyometra in bitches from 1-4

a. Estrogen therapy; also increased pyometra risk in breeds including golden retriever, miniature schnauzer, irish terrier, saint Bernard, Airedale terrier, cavalier king Charles spaniel, rough collie, Rottweiler, and bernese mountain dog
What are the clinical signs of pyometra

a. Depression, inappetence, polydipsia, polyuria, lethargy, abdominal enlargement, with or without vaginal discharge; typically afebrile and a high white blood cell count is typical, hyperproteinemia and Hyperglobulinemia are common
What diagnostic is generally not recommended in bitches suspected of having a pyometra

a. Cystocentesis
What organism is isolated from the uterus or vaginal discharge of a bitch with pyometra

a. E. Coli
What are the preferred diagnostics for a pyometra

a. Radiographs/ultrasound
What are the recommended treatments for a pyometra

a. Surgery (OHE) for closed pyometra; antibiotics for 3-4 weeks
b. If OHE is not an option,then the surgical option is to drain and lavage the uterus with 5% iodine in a saline solution via transcervical catheterization
When are prostaglandins an option for treating a pyometra

a. Bitches of breeding quality with an open pyometra (serum progesterone should be measured before prostaglandin treatment)
Vulvar discharge in the queen is most commonly from what

a. Uterus
What symptoms are seen in dogs with vulvar discharge

a. Licking of their vulva, vulvar swelling and hyperemia, scooting, pollakuria, recurrent urinary tract infection
Vulvar discharge is considered normal in what type of bitches

a. Intact bitches with uterine discharge (can be estral, cervical mucous, fetal fluids, or locia for up to 4 weeks after parturition
What is vaginitis

a. Inflammation of the mucosa cranial to the vaginovestibular junction; most often presents with purulent and mucopurulent vulvar discharge
When are owners most likely going to see puppy vaginitis

a. 6 weeks to 1 year of age
What is the cause for puppy vaginitis

a. Establishment of a symbiotic relationship with her endogenous bacteria and naïve vagina. May persist for months without detriment to the puppy
What can be done to treat puppy vaginitis

a. Best if nothing is done but if persists for longer than 2 months or seems to be bothering the puppy, can treat with antibiotics based on culture. Debate as to whether spaying puppies after first heat cycle helps prevent issues
Adult onset vaginitis is often caused by what

a. Idiopathic but need to rule out primary infections (brucella) and foreign bodies, urinary incontinence or urine pooling, ascending infections from vestibulitis, tumors, or masses
What is vestibulitis

a. Inlfammation of the vestibule that involves the vaginovestibular junction and is the most common cause for purulent vulvar discharge and vulvar licking
What are predisposing factors for vestibulitis

a. Conformational abnormalities such as hooded vulvas, clitoral hypertrophy, inverted vulvar folds, urinary incontinence
What is perivuvlar dermatitis

a. Inflammation of the skin around the vulva and is frequently caused by atopy or other factors such as conformational issues. Treated by removing underlying cause, treat secondary infections
What is the definition of a hooded vulva

a. Dorsal fold of the vulva envelops and covers more than 1/3 of the lateral vulvar folds
What is vestiulovaginal stenosis

a. Ratio between the maximum vaginal lumen diameter and the diameter of the vaginal lumen at the level of the vaginovestibular junction less than 0.33
What are vestibulovaginal bands

a. Vertical bands at the level of the vaginovestibular junction that are remnants of the embryonic development; can predispose to vaginitis
What causes clitoral hypertrophy

a. Exposure to exogenous progestins or testosterone, postnatal exposure to exogenous androgens or estrogens , irritation, masturbation
What are the most common neoplasms affecting the vestibule and the vagina

a. Fibromas, polyps, leiomyomas, transmissible venereal tumors
What virus is self-limiting but can cause vesicular lesions of the vagina or vestibule

a. Canine herpesvirus
What is the only primary bacterial pathogen of the canine urogenital tract that is an intracellular, gram-negative coccobacillus

a. Brucella canis
What type of mycoplasma organism carries more virulence factors and may play a role in infertility

a. Mycoplasma with sialidase production
What are the treatments recommended for mycoplasma

a. Doxycycline or Enrofloxacin; probiotics
What are the benefits associated with early neutering

a. Quicker recovery and shorter surgery time
b. Fewer surgical complications are typically reported
c. Cats: decreased incidence of asthma and gingivitis, abscesses
d. Decreased unwanted behaviors such as spraying, aggression
What behavioral issues have been associated with early neutering

a. Increased shyness, increased noise phobias
What musculoskeletal issues can be caused by early neutering

a. Increased physeal growth and possibly lead to hip dysplasia and cranial cruciate rupture
What urogenital issues may arise from early neutering

a. Increased rate of cystitis, urinary incontinence, increased risk of paraphimosis