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14 Cards in this Set

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Gender and statistics of religiosity

1.8 million women were church goers in contrast 1.3 million men in 2005




Bruce estimates that there are twice as many women involved than men in sects.





Socialisation as an explanation of gender differences in religiosity

Miller and Hoffman - Women more religious because they are socialised to be more passive, obedient and caring which is valued by most religions. - more attracted to religion




Also notes women are more likely than men to work part time or be full time careers thus have more scope to organise there time to participate in religious activities.

What does Davie argue roles of women effect there religiosity

Women's closer to proximity to death through child bearing and caring for elderly, sick brings them closer to lifes ultimate questions.

Heelas and Woodhead new age and effect on women religiosity

Found that 80% of participants in holistic milieu in Kendal were female.




This is because such movements celebrate the natural and involves cults of healing which give women a higher status.




Bruce argues, that women's child rearing make them less aggressive and goal orientated thus women want to feel more which is an emphasis on new age.

Women restricting of roles

NA emphasise the importance of being authentic rather than acting out roles which attract women as they are not restricted to their ascribed roles.

Compensation for deprivation as a factor effecting women religiosity

Stark and Bainbridge argue that people participate in religion because of the compensator for social, organismic and deprivation that occurs. These form of deprivation are more common amongst women and this explains higher participation of sects.




Organismic deprivation - Physical and mental health problems women more likely to experience thus seek healing through religion.




Ethical deprivation - Women tend to be more morally conservative thus regard the world as in moral decline and sects often share the same view.




Social deprivation - Women are more likely to be poor.

Recent trends for women and religiosity

A drastic decline in church going among women 30-45, 17% fall in Sunday church attendence from 1990 to 2005. Brierly notes it may be because of the immense pressures of home, family and work - 1/3 work on sundays.




Brown argues it may be because women are beginning to reject such gender roles and so reject religion.

Cultural defence as a reason for ethnic differences

Bruce argues that religion offers support and sense of cultural identity in an uncertain and hostile environment.




A way with coping with oppression from racist society - Black African and Caribbean Christians were not welcome in white churches and so turned to founding or joining black led churches.

Cultural transition as a reason for ethnic differences

Easing the transition into a new culture by providing support and a sense of community Herberg argues there was high levels of religious participation among first generation migrants in USA.




However, once a group has made there transition, religion may start to decline in significance - Irish Catholics.

Pryce's study of cultural transition and defence

Study of African Carribean community in Bristol shows evidence of both CD and CT.




He argues that pentecostalism helps migrants by providing values appropriate to the new world. adapt to society and helped its members success by encouraging self reliance and gave people mutual support and hope of improving their situation.

Age participation - under 15s and over 65s

Under 15s are more likely to go to church more than any other age group due to their parents.




The over 65s are more likely to be sick or disabled thus less likely to attend. Higher death rates within the group also means less are available to attend.

Voas and Croakett reasons for age differences

The ageing effect


View that people turn to religion as they get older. For example, Heelas's Kendal project found older people become more interested in spirituality as you approach death. Naturally concerned about after life.




The generational effect


The view that society is become more secular and so each next generation is less religious than the one before. Thus more old people in church than young people - not because they are more attracted to it but because they grew up at a time when religion was more important. They claim each generation is half as religious as their parents.

What does Gill note?

That children are no longer receiving a socialisation and those bought up without religious beliefs are less likely to become church goers later in life thus the trend will continue to decline where Christianity would become the belief of a small minority.

Statistics for age participation and trends

15-19 year old church attenders fell sharply since 1979 where now 2/5 of church have no under 11 year olds.




30% of church goers are over 65s.