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177 Cards in this Set

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The sacred writings of Christianity contained in the Bible.


A fixed list of texts, or the norms/criteria by which a text is measured.


The book that contains the Christian scriptures, 66 Books of old and new testaments. "The Book"


Aka Hebrew Bible, acronym for Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim.


The five books of Moses or the "Law."
Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy.


The prophets. Former: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. Latter: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Book of the Twelve (minor prophets.)


The Writings. Wisdom, literature and historical writings. Job, Proverbs, Ezra-Nehemiah.


Latin for 70, used to refer to Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible in general.


Branch of knowledge that deals with interpretation especially of the bible. Science of interpretation.


Taking something out of the text. Ex = Exterior.


Reading something into the text. Greek word for into.

Typological Interpretation

Seeing recurring characters or patterns refigured.

Allegorical Interprentation

Parts of the story stand for something, like an allegory would.

Historical Criticism

Using internal and external evidence to understand the historical details surrounding events discussed in the scriptures.

Source/Redaction Criticism

Tries to identify who or what the original source was behind the texts and how they have been edited (redacted) over time. Looks for inconsistencies.

Literary Criticism

Tries to identify and study the literary themes and conventions, look for Gospel, history, Letters, Apocalypse. Small forms too, narrative criticism: identify characters, setting, and plot. Uses literary techniques.

Social-Scientific Criticism

Understands the cultural values that give shape to, and help us make sense of, the text. Emic: People being investigated. Etic: Investigators.

Cultural Hermeneutics

Liberation Theology, Black Theology: Race and systematic oppression, Feminist Theology: Unnamed women, gender assumptions.

Documentary Hypothesis

Argues that the Torah was taken from a variety of originally independent sources, which were then combined into the current form by a series of redactors.


The Documentary Hypothesis about the Torah, says there are four major traditions at work within the constructions of the Torah. Jawhist (YWHW - God is active,) Elohist (Elohim/God - more abstract language used to describe God,) Deuteronomist (Wrote Deuteronomy, probably some prophets,) Priestly (the last editor, composes Gen. 1 and Deut. 34...first and last chapters of Torah. Interested in priesthood and worship.


Having human characteristics, in this case it likely refers to God.


The concept that signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests by referring to different types of human bodies.


The belief that all members of each race possess characteristics specific to that race, and then see them as something inferior or superior.

Racial Project

An interpretation, representation, or explanation of racial identities and meanings and an effort to organize and distribute resources along racial lines.


Treating something that is an idea as if it existed on its own.


A system of ideas and ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy.


Interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage.


Not "seeing" other races, and not acting or treating people differently because of their race. There are problems, assumes individuals have bias, equates absence of overt racial activities with absence of racialized thinking. Misses how structures of privilege work.


A formal agreement or treaty that establishes relationships with explicit expectations, often with rewards and punishments.

Suzerainty Treaty

Emphasizes the greatness of the king or dominant party.


Questions about how a story is being used to explain some later political or social development.


The story in which God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son, Isaac, on Moriah.

Reader-Response Criticism

Focuses on the reader and their experience of literary work.

Amarna Letters

An archive written on clay tablets, consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan during the New Kingdom.

Merneptah Stele

An inscription by the Egyptian king Merneptah, earliest reference to Israel.


The Hebrew name of God - YWHW or JHVH.


Ouch! Shows allegiance to God and Abraham.


The ten commandments.

Apodictic Laws

Regulations in the form of divine commands (10 commandments.)

Casuistic Laws

Case law, which contains a conditional statement and a type of punishment to be meted out.

Midrash Halakhah

Ancient method of commentary (Torah study) about the 613 Mitzvot commandments done by identifying their sources in the Tanakh and interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity.

Midrash Aggadah

Refers to non-legalistic exegetical texts in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism particularly as recorded in the Talmud and Midrash.

Deuteronomic History

A modern theoretical construct holding that behind the present forms of the books of Deuteronomy and Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings there was one single work.

Torah Obedience

Have to follow the law in order to keep the land. Possession is conditional on obedience.

Worship in Jerusalem

Alters of High placed called Bahmah were used, at on epoint there were many but by the end Jerusalem was the only legitimate acceptable place of worship.

Davidic Kingship

Time of rule under king David, has Bathsheba and Uriah. David was supposed to be the ideal king in the Hebrew Bible.


high place of worship with 4 corners or pointed stones and such.


Anything that imperils Jewish religious life should be destroyed. Total annihilation of all living things that was devoted to God.


Emic: Perspective of the people being investigated. Etic: Perspective of the investigators.

Conquest Model

Hebrews conquered the region through many military victories.

Immigration/Pastoral Nomads

A mass movement of nomadic people from the Negev who settled the land, evolving to form a complex society.

Peasant Revolt

Pretty self explanatory, peasants or slaves rose up and created a new society. Freedom from oppression becomes hallmark of the new people.

Gradual Emergence/Ruralization

People just gradually came together from all over as large cities went under gradual decline. People left them and headed for the hills.

Ideology of Chosenness

We are doing it right because we have been chosen to do this thing by some higher power.

United Kingdom

The united kingdom of Israel and Judah during Saul, David, and Solomon.

Solomon's Temple

Aka first Temple, THE holy temple, destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587 BCE after the Siege of Jerusalem.


Mediators between God and the people, also known as Seers. Predictions are about God's judgement or blessing.


The fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.

Unilateral Situationalist

Decides, and pledges oneself to be part of a group.


Community recognizes and welcomes a person

Hard primordialist

Ethnicity is not changed, and cannot be changed.


The interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types.

Cultural Assimilation

Embracing a new culture and fusing cultures to create or join another.


An ancient aramaic paraphrase or interpretation of the Hebrew Bible, of a type made from about the 1st century AD when Hebrew was declining as a spoken language.


Blending of Greek and local cultures, hard to maintain a strict Greek/Other distinction. During the time of Alexander, comes from Greek word for Greece: Hellas.


A member of the cultural community whose traditional religion is Judaism and who trace their origins through the ancient Hebrew people of Israel to Abraham.


Not Jewish


A condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist.

Postcolonial Theory

What does it mean to live under a colonial power? How do stories and images enforce colonial oppression? Etc.

Maccabean Revolt

Antiochus IV Epiphanes moved to abolish Jewish religion and identity Family of priests lead a revolt against Selucids, led by Mattathias and his son Judas "Maccabeus."


A custom of marrying only within the limits of a local community, clan, or tribe.


The interbreeding of people considered to be of different racial types.


Of or relating to the Jewish dynasty established by the Maccabees.


The spread of ancient Greek culture

Internalized Inferiority

The acceptance of and acting out of an inferior definition of self, given by the oppressor, is rooted in the historical designation of one's race.

New Testament

The second part of the Christian Bible, written originally in Greek and recording the life and teachings of Jesus and his earliest followers. It concludes the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles by St. Paul and others, and the book of Revelation.


The teaching or revelation of Christ. The record of Jesus' life and teaching in the first four books of the New Testament.


Of of forming a general summary or synopsis, of or relating to the Synoptic Gospels

Two-Source Hypothesis

The explanation for the synoptic problem, the pattern of similarities and differences between the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke.


Of or relating to knowledge, especially esoteric mystical knowledge.


Believed Jesus was the savior sent by God, and Paul the Apostle was his chief apostle, but he rejected the Hebrew Bible and the God of Israel.


A letter, or a series of letters. Also a book in the New Testament in the form of a letter.


A member of an ancient Jewish sect, distinguished by strict observance of the traditional and written law, and commonly held to have pretensions to superior sanctity.


A member of a Jewish sect or party of the time of Jesus Christ that denied the resurrection of the dead, the existence of spirits, and the obligation of oral tradition, emphasizing acceptance of the written Law alone.

Fulfillment Motif

Promises being fulfilled as seen a lot throughout Luke, Acts, etc.


One of the twelve chief disciples of Jesus Christ

Racial Microagressions

Frequent and brief commonplace verbal, behavioral, or environmental indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults towards people of color.

Critical Race Theory

Theoretical framework in the social sciences focused upon the application of critical theory, a critical examination of society and culture, to the intersection of race, law, and power.

Experiential Knowledge

Knowledge gained through experience


A system of ideals, especially one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy

Christian Universalism

A school of christian theology which includes the belief in the doctrine of universal reconciliation, the view that all human being will ultimately be restored to a right relationship with God in heaven and the New Jerusalem.


Act of replacing one person or thing by another especially one held to be superior.

Purity Laws

A series of regulations against a certain type of person/thing


Written under a false name

Undisputed Letters

Some letters that Paul wrote


The art of speaking persuasively

Ethos, Pathos, Logos

Ethics, Emotions, Logics

Colorblind Racism

Trying to treat others as if they have no race, disregards all previous racial wounds/wrongdoings

Coded Language

Using code words to refer to other words

Abstract Liberalism

Using ideas associated with political liberalism (equal opportunity) and economic liberalism in an abstract manner to explain racial matters.

Cultural Liberalism

A liberal view of society that stresses the freedom of individuals from cultural norms. It is often expressed, in the words of Thoreau, as the right to "march to the beat of a different drum."


Downplaying the significance of an event of emotion.

Triracial System

Whites, "honorary whites" (people who look kinda white, enough,) and blacks.

Corporeal Anxiety

Means a very physical anxiety, I guess?

Exposed Infants

Infants who were abandoned by their dicks of parents. Moses was exposed on a raft of reeds floating down a river.

Open/Closed Slave System

Closed is much like the system in the U.S where slave drivers were absolute ******** for the most part and the work was very labor intensive. Open is closer to ancient Greece where they weren't quite as douchy to the slaves.

American Exceptionalism

The special character of the United States as a uniquely free nation based on democratic ideals and personal liberty.

Effective Belief

A belief that is worth believing.

The Dream

Refers to MLK's speech, probably. Or the "American Dream." Likely MLK though.

Unnatural Desire

Likely refers to gay dudes in the Bible.


The desire to have sexual relations with those of the opposite gender to your own.


The irrational fear of homosexuality as an idea

Liberation theologies

A radical movement that grew up in South America. It said the church should act to bring out social change, and should ally itself with the working class to do so.


A form of society or government in which the father or the eldest male is the head of family and descent is traced through the male line.


Practice, as an accepted practice or custom

White Moderate

King's term for middle class white folks, that want things to just stay as they are.

Genesis 3:22-24

Adam and Eve get their dumb asses kicked out of the garden.

Genesis 9:24-24

Noah wakes up from being drunk is like, ya know what? **** you Ham.

Genesis 15:17-20

God makes a covenant with Abraham, gives him some land.

Genesis 22:9-14

WAIT. ****. ABRAHAM. DON'T ACTUALLY KILL ISAAC. Bro, I was totally kidding lol come here.

Exodus 1:8-10

The new king says that the Israelites are too numerous so they should probably just be slaves...

Exodus 3:7-10

God comes to the rescue, tells Moses he's gotta talk to the Pharoah about some ****, specifically how totally and royally ****** the Egyptians are about to be.

Exodus 3:13-15

Moses questions God, and asks God what he should call him. God gave him the straightforawd answer that "I am who I am."

Exodus 6:2-5

God says he remembers his covenant, and can hear the moans and groans. Mmmmmm.

Joshua 1:6-9

Moses is dead, it's Joshua's turn. God says it's time to cross the Jordan river. God says he will always be with Joshua and obviously that makes Joshua pretty strong.

Ruth 1:16-17

Ruth is going to follow Naomi to the grave no matter what. Uh, OK Ruth, you do that.

2 Samuel 12:7

You da man, David!

Amos 5:10-14

Amos is kinda roasting the people for wanting lavish stuff.

Ezra 10:2-5

Everybody is freaking out about marrying foreign women so they send all of the women and children away... Problem solved!

1 Maccabees 2:19-26

Mattathias goes nuts because he sees a Jew follow the command of King Antiochus.

Matthew 21:5-7

"Daughter of Zion" People bring Jesus a donkey and a colt and a blanket too

Matthew 22:11-14

"Many are called, but few are chosen" The king sees a guy in a regular dress when everyone else has wedding clothes on.

Mark 7:27-28

Jesus talking to the lady who is begging him for something and he compares her to a dog begging for scraps

Mark 8:34-38

Jesus gives all of his soon-to-be followers an ultimatum that they must devote their lives to him in order to save themselves.

Luke 4:16-19

The rejection of Jesus at Nazareth. Someone wrote a note in the prophet of Isaiah that said "The spirit of the lord is upon me, because he has anointed me."

John 13:12-17

Jesus just finished washing everyone's feet, sets up the golden rule kinda ("wash each other's feet now.") Also says servants are not greater than their master.

John 19:28-30

This is right where Jesus dies after drinking shitty wine.

Galatians 3:28-29

"Everyone is on in Christ Jesus." "If you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham's offspring, heirs according to the promise."

Philemon 1:8-10

Paul's plea to Philemon for Onesimus. "I am appealing to you for my child, Onesimus."

Romans 1:24-25

God gave everyone up to their lusts and let them degrade themselves.

Ephesians 5:22-25

Women should subject to guys in the same way they subject to the Lord. Husbands should love their wives too, but, you know, they're obviously less obliged b/c patriarchy.

James 2:17-18

Actions speak louder than words, lots to do with faith and works.

722 BCE

Northern Kingdom of Israel destroyed.

586 BCE

Jerusalem destroyed - final deportation to Babylon

167 BCE

Antiochus Epiphanes IV, Greek king ruling in Syria, desecrates the Jerusalem temple, Maccabean Revolt.

63 BCE

Roman general Pompey enters Jerusalem, and Roman occupation of Palestine begins.

70 CE

The Second Temple is destroyed by the Romans during the Jewish revolt.

33 CE

Death of Jesus on the cross.


Last of the pre-flood patriarchs. Built the ark, was seen as the last righteous person or something like that.


Noah's son that put clothes on him and then got cursed for no good reason.


Founder of Judaism, progenitor of the Hebrews. Is told to sacrifice his son.


Abraham's son that he had with his wife. Isaac is the father of Jacob.


Son of Isaac, and Rebecca, nephew of Ishmael. Later named Israel. Third guy that God made a covenant with.


He was sold into slavery by his jealous brothers. He rose to the second most powerful man in all of Egypt.


A prophet, used to be an Egyptian priest, later becomes a religious leader and lawgiver.


First priest of Israel, Moses' older brother who served as his spokesperson. Together, the two lead the Hebrews out of slavery.


One of the Moses' servant and spies sent to spy on the land of Canaan. Muslims see him as the leader of the Israels following the death of Moses.


The prostitute who lived in Jericho and helper the Israelites in capturing the city.

King David

God gets mad about something that Saul does and so sends Samuel to go tell David that he's the king now. Second ling of UK.


Wife of Uriah the Hittite and later David. Mother of Solomon.


Bathsheba's husband, soldier in King David's army. He was murdered by order of King David and Bathsheba became pregnant in his absence.


Court prophet during the time of David, basically an adviser to David.


Ruth was a Moabite who married into a Hebrew family, then followed Naomi around.


Ruth's mother-in-law.


One of twelve minor prophets, from Judah but preached in Israel.

Nebuchadnezzar (II)

Was the greatest king of ancient Babylon. Destroyed Jerusalem's temple.

King Cyrus of Persia

Babylonian captivity ended, rebuilt the Temple in Jerusalem because God told him to.

Antiochus of Epiphanes

Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid empire

Mattathias Maccabeus

Father of Judas Maccabeus, served as a priest in the Temple of Jerusalem as did all fit priests. Got pissed about a Jewish sacrifice.

John the Baptist

Familial relative of Jesus. Sees the spirit descend like a dove and he explicitly preaches that Jesus is the Son of God.

Jesus of Nazareth

Central figure of the Christian religion, a savior believed to be both God incarnate and a human being. He is also known as Jesus Christ.


Peter was the son of John, one of the two apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.


Gospel of Mark is anonymous, however it is attributed to John Mark, a companion and interpreter of apostle Peter.


Thought to be a physician and a disciple of Paul, and likely did not know Jesus. Regarded as a saint, and also has a book in the new testament named after him.


Saint Paul! Paul the apostle, aka Saul of Tarsus. Paul was an apostle (not one of the 12) who taught the gospel of the Christ to the first century world.


regarded as a saint, was a runaway slave of Philemon's who Paul received whilst in prison.


One of the 12 apostles, brother of Jesus.