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84 Cards in this Set

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What is biological psychology?

connects biology to the way we behave

What is a key assumption of Biological psychology?

our behaviors and a result of our genetics

How are human brains and animal brains & behavior similar? How do human brains differ from animal brains?

similar- seek reward and avoid punishment


diff- we have larger brains and animals behavior adapts to environment

Biological Psychologists obtain their data from which three kinds of research?

-comparative method


-physiology


-inheritance investigation

dendrite

receptor

soma

part of neuron that contains nucleus

axon

long projection of neuron for electric impulses

terminal field

endings on axon to communicate with other cells

myelin sheath

protective layer on axon to speed up electrical current

What is the resting potential of a neuron?

charge inside neuron is less than outside

What are the steps involved in a neural impulse (also called the action potential)?

charge is greater inside neuron and it is ready to act

What is an excitatory signal?

action potential in presynaptic sell increases probability of action potential in post cell

What is an Inhibitory signal?

stops neurons activity

What is plasticity?

ability of nervous system to change

What is the Central Nervous System?

brain and spinal cord


controls activity in body

What is the Peripheral Nervous System?

nervous system outside of CNS


connects body with spinal cord and brain


-contains somatic and autonomic

somatic

voluntary behavior

autonomic

non voluntary-


contains sympathetic and parasympathetic

sympathetic

active during crisis

parasympathetic

rest and digest

What is a simple reflex pathway?

neuron pathway to spinal cord for reflexes

What do sensory neurons do?

convert external stimuli to electric impulses

Motor neurons

form pathway to spinal cord from sensory neurons

Interneurons

transmits impulses between other neurons

frontal lobe functions

motor function, language, memory, planning

parietal lobe functions

touch and perception

occipital lobe functions

vision

temporal lobe functions

hearing, language, and memory

What is the prefrontal cortex?

part of frontal lobe for thinking,planning, and language

What is the limbic system?

part of brain containing brain stem, center for emotion

what is the thalamus?

gateway from sense organs to their cortex

The hypothalamus

maintain and regulate constant internal state

amygdala

part of limbic system for fear, excitement and arousal

Hippocampus

spatial memory

Dorsal pathway

WHERE pathway

ventral pathway

WHAT pathway

brocas area

speech production

Wernicke's area

temporal lobe for understanding speech

Basil Ganglia

forebrain structure to control movement

Motor cortex

frontal lobe part for body movement

adrenal glands

produce hormones

somatosensory cortex

sense of touch

What is neglect syndrome?

Following brain damage patients are unaware of items on one side

Prosopagnosia

Inability to recognize faces of people one knows

Phantom limb syndrome

Feel a sensation in the limb that is not there

Agnosia

inability to interpret sensation and recognize things

What is spatial attention?

Focusing attention in a certain area

What is the Stroop test, and what does it demonstrate about the human brain?

when you read words in different colors, we like making connections

What is the brain stem

communication with brain and rest of body

The hindbrain

lower part of the brainstem, comprising the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata

Cerebellum

responsible for balance and coordination of the muscles & the body

pons

connects the lobes of the midbrain, medulla and cerebrum

Medulla

regulates your heart rate, breathing, and swallowing. Essentials to live

What is the reticular activating system?

a diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord, cerebrum, and cerebellum, and mediating the overall level of consciousness.

What is the midbrain?

a small central part of the brainstem, developing from the middle of the primitive or embryonic brain

What is the endocrine system?

A collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate growth, mood, sex, reproduction

The pituitary gland

Major endocrine gland, controls all other glands

adrenal gland

produce steroids

Cortisol

Steroid hormone

Synapse steps

1. Nerve impulse arrives at synapse-


2. Neurotransmitter molecules released


3. Neurotransmitters bind to receptor molecules


4.Channels open up to let in ions- Ions create + or - current


5. Neurotransmitters degraded or recaptured

What are neurotransmitters?

Chemicals in the brain that communicate info through our brain and body.

What neurotransmitters are associated with depression?

low amounts of serotonin (dopamine and norepinephrine)

Schizophrenia neurotransmitters

Dopamine and glutamate

Pain reduction neurotransmitters

serotonin and endorphins

Parkinson's neurotransmitters

low dopamine

Brain arousal neurotransmitter

norepinephrine

muscle contractions neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine (ACh)

How can drugs increase the effect of neurotransmitters in the synapse?

Enhance LTP

How can drugs decrease the effect of neurotransmitters in the synapse?

Block LTP

Agonist

increase receptor cell activitiy

Antagonist

decrease receptor cell activity

Nicotine acts on what system?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Botox acts on what system?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

Ampthetamines acts on what system?

Norepinephrine

SSRIs acts on what system?

serotonin

Narcotics acts on what system?

Endorphins

Who is Donald Hebb and what is his rule?


What is the brief form of his rule?

-Axon of cell A excites B growth between the two happens and A’s efficiency enhances B


-Cells that fire together wire together

What is long-term potentiation (LTP)

High frequency stimulation increases A’s ability to activate B

How is LTP induced?

Changes in protein synthesis

What is a tetanus?

Spasms of voluntary muscles

What is the relationship between LTP and long-term memory?

Neurons wiring together strengthens memory

Who is HM and what did he contribute to science?

- Memory disorder patient


-Showed that brain can function with other parts missing

What is the role of the hippocampus in memory, especially spatial memory?

Memory of physical layout

What is the corpus callosum?

large band of fibers to connect two sides of brain