Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

If Luther started the Protestant movement, what then was John Calvin’s role regarding Protestantism?

Expansion of the protestant reformation


Calvin presented his systematic theology in a work called:

The Institute of the Christian Religion

. What profession did John Calvin practice before he became a Protestant reformer?


In which city did Calvin want to set up an ideal Christian church and society?


Which countries in Europe particularly embraced Calvinism? (name at least three)

The Netherlands, Scotland, Germany, France

Which promise did Martin Luther make to God when he was returning to school and was caught in a terrible thunderstorm in the summer of 1505?

He promised that he would become a monk.

How did young Martin Luther tried to find peace with God in his early years as an Augustinian monk?

He devoted himself to fasts, flagellations, long hours in prayer and pilgrimages, and constant confession.

Which act performed by Martin Luther is considered to be the primary starting point of the Protestant Reformation?

He published his “95 Theses” ( to the church door at Wittenberg, accusing the Roman Catholic Church of heresy upon heresy.)

Discuss the source called textus receptus. What is it, who was the author, and how was it important to Martin Luther?

Textus Receptus was the New Testament written by Erasmus. Martin Luther used the text to translate and publish the Bible in the commonly spoken dialect of the German people. 

Why did Luther called the book of James in the Bible, “the Epistle of Straw.”?

Martin Luther was frustrated by the works-emphasis of the book of James and questioned its canonicity.

According to Luther, how could one receive salvation from God?

Through faith and trust in God's promise to forgive sins for the sake of Christ's death on the cross.

Discuss the bull Exsurge Domine. Who proclaimed it and what does it say?

The Exsurge Domine was a papal bull issued by Pope Leo X. It censured several of the propositions extracted from Luther’s 95 theses, while threatening him with excommunication unless he recanted his teachings.

Why was Luther summoned to the Diet of Worms. What was Luther expected to say there?

Luther was asked if he still believed in what his works taught and was expected to disclaim his writings, which he could not unless he was given concrete proof by the Scriptures or by plain reasoning and arguments that his teachings were in fact wrong.

What arrangements did Frederick the Wise make in order to protect Luther after the Diet of Worms?

The prince arranged for Luther to be seized on his way from the Diet by a company of masked horsemen, who carried him to the castle of the Wartburg, where he was kept about a year.

Martin Luther was the first person to translate and publish the Bible in the commonly-spoken dialect of the German people. What methods did he use in order to ensure that his translation used the language of the people?

He observed the common people’s speech

Because of the ___________the pope could not interfere.

Act in Restrain of Appeals

In 1533 the Parliament passed___________which declared all children of Henry and Ann legitimate heirs to the throne.

the Act of Succession

According to the Act of Supremacy, who was the official head of the “Church of England”?

The king

What did the Act of Dissolution dissolved?

All monasteries.

When Henry died on January 27, 1547, who replaced him?

His only male heir, Edward

The Sacramentarians rejected the

Miracle of the mass

In the 15th century, The Netherlands was ruled by the House of Burgundy


The Brethen of the Common Life was a religious group in The Netherlands that called for laypeople to________ and_________

Read the Bible and imitate the life of Christ as the essence of religion

In 1566 some 200 nobles went to Brussels to meet with the governor,

Margaret of Parma.

Only one of the most prominent nobles survived the Spanish repression. He was____

William of Orange

The petition made by the nobles to the Spanish ruled has been called

Compromise of the Nobility

A Spanish adviser to the governor called the petitioners:


In 1575, the Spanish forces besieged the town of


The venerations of saints and relics were examples of

(Popular) Piety

Baptism, penance, holy orders are examples of the

The Sacraments

They were the channels of grace, a very important link between God and heaven.These were

The Sacraments

The miraculous transformation of the bread and wine into the body and blood ofChrist is a processes called:


Counting beads while praying to the Virgin Mary were practices introduced in the Middle Ages by the

Common people

In mid-1620, about 100 Pilgrims set sail for New England aboard the


The Pilgrims were a congregation of:


Before sailing to America, the Pilgrims had settled in the city of_________ in Netherlands


When the Pilgrims settled in New England, they renamed the native village of Pawtuxet to


The Pilgrims created the __________, promising obedience to the Pilgrims leaders. This was the first declaration of self-government in the New World.

Mayflower Compact

________was the elected first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. He preached one of history’s most famous sermon:

John Winthrop, A Model of Christian Charity

What were the Puritans’ objections to the practices of the Church of England?

They didn’t like it because it reminded them of the Catholic Church

Starting in the 1630s, over 20,000 Puritans left England to come to


This migratory movement has been called:

The Great Migration

_________ of shareholders, the corporate governing body, was expanded to include all freemen living in the colony.

The General Court

According to John Wycliffe, what was needed in order to create among the common people a demand for a reformation of the church?

John Wyclif believed that if the common people had the Bible in their own language they would demand a reformation.

What did the statue de Haeretico Comburendo outlaw?

The statue de Haeretico Comburendo outlawed “heresy”, which was punishable by burning.

Explain why the groups of Cambridge students, meeting regularly at “The White Horse Inn, were called “Germans”?

Because they went to “The White Horse Inn” to discuss the writings of the German Reformer Martin Luther, who two years earlier had been condemned as a heretic, at worms.

What did the Act of Supremacy in 1534 established in England?

It removed England from the jurisdiction of the Roman papacy.

What did the Act of Uniformity set into law?

It by law the worship and rituals prescribed in this Prayer Book (The Book of Common Prayer).

Why is John Hooper, bishop of Gloucester, called the “Father of Puritanism”?

Because he tried to discourage “popish” vestments and ceremonies.

Why was Mary called “Bloody Mary”?

Because she executed (mostly burned) around three hundred (Protestant?) people, including the Protestant bishops.

What type of religious authority was restored in England during Mary’s reign?

The papal authority

At the beginning of Mary’s reign, approximately eight hundred Protestants left England. Where did they go?

Most of the eight hundred Protestants that left England went to Geneva, “the holy city of the Alps”.

The________ was considered to be the Bible of the Puritans.

Geneva Bible

When the Pilgrims arrived in New England, up to 90 percent of the populationhad been wiped out due to

a great epidemic.

American slavery was born in 1619 when a ship arrived in ________ with two dozen African slaves.


___________ founded the new colony of Rhode Island andProvidence Plantations as a haven for religious dissenters.

Roger Williams

The deadliest war in American history was

King Philip’s War

John Smith mapped the northeastern coast of North American in 1614 andnamed it as

New England

___________ arrived in Boston in 1634, she was a midwife and held meetings in her home to discuss scripture. She soon became one of the most influential theologians in the colony. She was tried for her radical views and banished to Rhode Island.

Anne Hutchinson

In 1692, the town of______ was the setting for the most famous outbreak of witchcraft in colonial America.


The book__________ was written by CottonMather in order to help people identify the signs of witchcraft.

Remarkable Providences(?)

The first English colony in North America was ________, founded in 1607.