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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A surgically induced brain lesion
Irrational fear of heights
ACT model
(Adaptive Control of Thought)- Model that describes memory in terms of procedural and declarative memory.
Actor-observer effect
Tendency of actors to see observer behavior as due to external factors (situational) and the tendency of observers to attribute actors' behaviors to internal characteristics.
Impairments in perceptual recognition.
Fear of being in places where escape might be difficult.
Alternate-form method
In psychometrics, the method of using two or more different forms of a test to determine the reliability of a particular test.
Anima (animus)
Archetype from Jung's theory referring to the feminine behaviors in males, and the masculine behaviors in females.
Impairment in the ability to eat.
Impairment in the organization of voluntary action.
Association area
Areas in the brain that integrate infromation from different cortical regions.
Atkinson-Shiffin model
Model of memory that involves three memory structures (sensory, STM, LTM).
Availability heuristic
Decide how likely something is based upon how easily similar instances can be imagined.
Bekesy's traveling wave theory
Proposed by Von Bekesy, the theory holds that high frequency sounds maximally vibrate the basilar membrane near the beginning of the cochlea close to the oval window and low frequencies maximally vibrate near the apex, or tip of the cochlea.
Boomerang effect
In theories of attitude persuasion, it is an attitude change in the opposite direction of the persuader's message.
Borderline PD
A personality disorder characterized by an instability in interpersonal behavior, mood and self-image that borders on psychosis.
Bottom-up processing
Information processing that occurs when objects are recognized by the summation of the components of incoming stimulus to arrive at the whole pattern.
Broca's aphasia
Impairments in producing spoken language.
Cannon-Bard theory
Theory of emotions stating that awareness of emotions reflects our physiological arousal and our cognitive experience of emotion.
Antipsychotic drug.
Client-centered therapy
Carl Rogers. Based on idea that clients have the freedom to control their own behavior, and that the client is able to reflect upon his problems, make choices, and take positive action.
Parallel distribution processing. A theory of information processing that is analogous to a complex neural network.
Construct validity
Type of validity that refers to how well a test measures the intended theoretical construct.
Content validity
Refers to how well the content items of a test measure the particular skill or knowledge area that it is supposed to measure.
Conversion disorders
Characterized by unexplained symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory functions. Used to be referred to as "hysteria".
In psychoanalysis, occurs when the therapist experiences emotions in response to the patient's transference.
Criterion validity
How well the test can predict an individual's performance on an established test of the same skill or knowledge area.
Fear of dogs.
Distal stimulus
In perception, the actual object or event in the world, as opposed to its perceived image.
Domain-referenced testing
Sometimes called criterion-referenced testing, concerned with the question of what the test taker knows about a specified content domain.
Double-bind hypothesis
Psychosocial theory of schizophrenia holding that people with schizophrenia received contradictory messages from primary caregivers during childhood, and that these messages led them to see their perceptions of reality as unreliable.
Eidetic memory
Memory for images.
Emmert's Law
Law describing the relationship between size constancy and apparent distance.
Equity theory
Theory stating that individuals strive for fairness and feel uncomfortable when there is a perception of a lack of fairness.
Process of removing various parts of the brain, and then observing the behavioral consequences.
Face validity
Refers to whether test items appear to measure what they are supposed to measure.
Fechner's law
Statistical technique using correlation coefficients to reduce a large number of variables to a few factors.
Fetal period
last stage of prenatal development.
Fictional finalism
Concept in Adler's theory of personality. Notion that an individual is motivated more by his expectations of the future based on a fictional estimate of life's values, than by past experiences.
Field independence-field dependence
Personality style characterized by an ability/inability to distinguish experience from its context.
Fixed action pattern
Behavior that is relatively stereotyped and appears to be species-typical.
Follicle stimulating hormone
Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate the growth of an ovarian follicle, which is a small protective sphere surrounding the egg or ovum.
Frequency theory
Suggests that the basilar membrane of the ear vibrates as a whole, that the rate of vibration equals the frequency of the stimulus and that the vibration rate is directly translated into the appropriate number of neural impulses per second.
System of thought that was concerned with studying how mental processes help individuals adapt to their environments.
Neurotransmitter that produces inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and is thought to play an important role in stabilizing neural activity.
Garcia effect
Food aversion that occurs when people attribute illness to a particular food.
Generation-recognition model
Model that proposes that recall tasks tap the same basic process of accessing information in memory as recognition tasks, but also require an additional processing step.
Hawthorne effect
The tendency of people to behave differently if they know they are being observed.
Innate releasing mechanism
A mechanism in the animal's nervous system that serves to connect the stimulus with the right response.
Neurons located in the spinal cord that connect sensory neurons with motor neurons to form the reflex arc.
A theory that suggests that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the object in the perceptual field and the pattern of stimulation in the brain.
James-Lange theory of emotions
People become aware of their emotions after they notice their physiological reactions to some external event.
Lateral inhibition
In visual perception, it is the process of inhibiting the response of adjacent retinal cells resulting in the sharpening and highlighting of the borders between dark and light areas.
Law of pragnanz
Tendency for perceptual organization to be as "good" (regular, symmetric, and simple) as possible.
An approach to personality that focuses on groups of individuals and tries to find the commonalities between individuals.
Opponent-process theory of color vision
Ewald Hering's theory that there are four primary colors in additive color mixing (red, blue, green, yellow), and that the primary colors are arranged in opposing pairs.
Pleasure Principle
In Freud's structural dynamic model of personality, it is the id's operating principle, which is to immediately discharge any energy build-up.
Primary process
In Freud's structural dynamic model of personality, it is the id's response to frustration-- "obtain satisfaction now, not later".
Sense of bodily position, includes aspects of vestibular and kinesthetic senses.
Protection-motivation theory
Social psychology theory proposing that an appeal to fear produces attitude change under particular conditions.
When social pressure to behave in a particular way becomes so blatant that the person's sense of freedom is threatened, the person will tend to act in a way to reassert that sense of freedom.
Secondary process
In Freud's structural dynamic model of personality, it is the ego's mode of functioning, which is to postpone the discharge of energy until the actual object that will satisfy the need has been discovered or produced.
Self-awareness theory
The theory that our behavior is influenced by an awareness of the self, and that there are certain situations that trigger a focus on ourselves (mirrors, cameras, recording devices).
Self-disclosure theory
Refers to those conditions that prohibit or facilitate the process of revealing personal or intimate aspects of oneself.
Self-perception theory
Daryl Bem's theory that when attitudes about something are weak or ambiguous, people observe their own behavior and then attribute attitudes to themselves.
Social exchange theory
We are motivated to affiliate with others based upon the rewards and costs of affiliation--the more the rewards outweigh the costs, the greater the attraction to the other person.
Steven's power law
A law that relates the intensity of the stimulus to the intensity of that sensation.
Tardive dyskinesia
Resting tremors and jerky motor movements caused by disruptions of dopamine transmission.
Theory of motivation
A drive-reduction theory proposed by Clark Hull suggesting that the goal of behavior is to reduce biological drives--that is, behavioral reinforcement occurs whenever a biological drive is reduced.
Two-factor theory of emotion
Schatcher-Singer. States that the subjective experience of emotion is based on the interaction between changes in physiological arousal and cognitive interpretation of that arousal. In absence of any clear emotion-provoking stimulus, interpretation of physiological arousal depends on what is happening in the environment.
Two-point threshold
The minimum distance necessary between two points of stimulation on the skin such that the points will be felt as two distinct stimuli.
Type I errors
Error of mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis.
Type II errors
An error of mistakenly failing to reject the null hypothesis.
Value hypothesis
Suggests that the risky shift occurs in situations in which riskiness is culturally valued.
Variable interval (VI)
In operant conditioning, it is when behavior is reinforced at the first response made after a variable amount of time has elapsed since the last reinforcement.
Variable ratio (VR)
When behavior is reinforced after a varying number of responses.
The square of the standard deviation, it is a description of how much each score varies from the mean.
Weber's law
The change in stimulus intensity needed to produce a just noticeable difference (jnd), divided by the stimulus intensity of the standard stimulus is a constant.
Yerkes-Dodson law
Performance is worst at extremely low or extremely high levels of arousal, and optimal at some intermediate level.
Young-Helmholtz theory
(Trichromatic theory). Theory of color vision that suggests that the retina contains three different types of color receptors (cones), which are differentially sensitive to red, blue, or green, and all colors are produced by combined stimulation of these receptors.
Zone of proximal development
Refers to those skills and abilities that have not yet fully developed but are in the process of development.
A Freudian slip.
Drug that mimics symptoms of psychosis, delusions, and hallucinations.
Delta Waves
Slow wave sleep.
Theta waves
Alpha waves
relaxed, eyes closed.
Beta waves
Alert/active concentration.
Short term memory/cross-modal perce (?)
Pituitary gland
Adrenal gland
Cortisol and adrenaline.
Thyroid gland
Pineal gland
Melatonin (sleep/seasonal pattern).
Lymph gland
Immune system.
Sensory receptor responds to stimuli outside the body.
Detects motion and position of internal stimuli.
Responds to internal stimuli.
Responds to pain.
Sympathetic Nervous System
Hastens the body.
Parasympathetic NS
Slows the body.
Having to do with the attainment of the end.
Having to do with changes in stimuli.
Afferent neuron
Carry nerve impulses from receptors to the central nervous system. Located in dorsal column of the spinal cord.
Purkinje Effect
Tendency for luminance sensitivity to shift towards blue light in low illumination.
Ricco's law
Ability for people to detect a target on a background.
Guthrie's Contiguity
Similarly moving things are grouped together.