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104 Cards in this Set

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Sexual Identity

How adolescents think of themselves as sexual beings

Masculine Gender Role

Males are expected to be self-reliant, self sufficient, able to defend their beliefs, take a stand, and be leaders. Portrays males as sexual risk takers, ones that make the first move

Feminine Gender Role

Females are expected to be sensitive to the feelings of others, affectionate, warm, and in touch with their own emotions. Portrays females as dependent, passive, and child-like.

Androgynous

A personality in which there are both masculine and feminine attributes

Sexual Style

Approaches taken by adolescents in constructing their sexual selves

Sexually Naiive

Adolescents who lack confidence in sexual attractiveness and feel they have little control over sexual situations. Tend to be younger, sexually inexperienced, mostly girls.

Sexually Unassured

Adolescents who have low sexual self-esteem and self-efficacy, but are interested in exploring their sexuality. Tend to be younger sexually inexperienced boys

Sexually Competent

Adolescents of either sex who are confident of their sexual appeal and their ability to control sexual situations. Show more interest in exploring sexuality, most are older

Sexually Adventurous

Adolescents who are distinguished by high levels of sexual arousal and interest in sexual exploration. Show little anxiety and relationship commitment. Tend to be adolescent boys who are older and more sexually experienced.

Sexually Driven

Similar to sexually adventurous, but can say no to sex if they find the person undesirable. Tend to be sexually active adolescent boys

Sexual Script

Learned from expectations derived from cultural roles and gender stereotypes that guide behavior in sexual situations.

Puberty and Making Sexual Decisions

Making decisions about sexuality involves taking steps away from childhood and into adulthood, which may lead to conflict that interferes with responsible sexual decision making.

What are predictors of whether an adolescent will talk with parents about sex?

Adolescents with mothers who are open and understanding talk about sex more than adolescents with mothers who are unresponsive. Adolescents talk more with their mothers then their fathers. Both parents talk more to daughters than to sons.

Self-Stimulation

Masturbation

Biologically Based Protective Factors of Adolescent Sexuality

Late maturing adolescents, females, higher intelligence (all lead to a person being less likely to engage in early or risky sexual behaviors)

Psychologically Based Protective Factors of Adolescent Sexuality

Religious beliefs, values, emotional adjustment, college bound adolescents

Social Factors of Adolescent Sexuality

Stable family situation, more family supervision, parents who hold high expectations, adolescents who are emotionally connected.

Practical Reasons Adolescents do not Engage in Sex

Fear of pregnancy or STDs, waiting for the right person, waiting to be older

Human Sexual Response Cycle

1. Excitement/Arousal - Characterized by body's initial response to feelings of desire


2. Plateau - Highest point o sexual excitement


3. Orgasm - Peak of plateau stage and point at which sexual tension is released


4. Resolution - Period during which the body returns to pre-excitement state

Vasocongestion

An accumulation of blood in the vessels serving the erogenous zones (areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual arousal). Can occur in males or females

Myotonia

An increase in muscular tension

Myths and Misconceptions about Sex

You can't get pregnant standing up, you can't get pregnant if the males withdrawals before ejaculation, you are too young to get pregnant, a bigger penis means better sex, intact hymen proves virginity

Sexual Orientation

The attraction individuals feel for members of the same and/or other sex

Twin Studies on Homosexuality

Compared to other siblings, if one monozygotic twin is gay/lesbian, about half of the other twins will identify as gay/lesbian.

Reasons why adolescents do not use contraception

Lack of information, inability to accept one's sexuality, cognitive-emotional immaturity issues

Chlamydia

STD that causes pelvic inflammatory disease

Genital Warts

Also called HPV, STD that makes one at higher risk for cervical cancer; vaccine can prevent it

Genital Herpes

STD for which there is no cure; characterized by recurring outbreaks of itching or burning blisters

Syphilis

STD that could result in death if untreated; can damage heart, spinal cord, and brain. Easily treated with antibiotics

Pubic Lice

Can be gotten from bedding or sexual activity

Teen Parenting Difficulties

Adolescent mothers are less ready for parenthood, adolescents are less likely to receive prenatal care, more likely to experience complications during pregnancy. Children born to adolescent mothers more likely to experience complications such as premature birth and low birth weight.

Adolescents and Abortion

30% of 15-19 year olds end pregnancy in abortion, with younger adolescents being more likely to do so than older ones. Teens from middle-class families more likely to abort than those in poverty. Girls who are more religious are less likely to abort.

Comprehensive Sex Education Programs

Sex education programs that teach abstinence as a preferred approach and educate students concerning effective methods of contraception

Service Learning Programs

Comprehensive education programs that include a community service component

Abstinence-Only Programs

Sex education programs that teach that abstinence is the only way to prevent pregnancy and STDs. These programs have received more federal funding, but have not been found to be effective in delaying sexual activity or preventing STDs or unintended pregnancies.

Resilient

Characterized by attitudes and social skills that enable individuals to function in a variety of settings. Adolescents who are resilient are more likely to volunteer

Values: Gender & Ethnicity

There are more similarities than differences in values held by females and males, and relatively few differences in adolescents' values due to race

Values & Identity

Adolescents' values shape their sense of themselves and are an important component of their identity

Morality

The development of standards of right and wrong


Values & Individualistic/Collectivistic Cultures

Individualistic cultures value independence, self-reliance, individual achievement and self expression. Collectivistic cultures value interdependence, cooperation, group success, and harmonious relationships.

Kohlberg's Theory of Development of Moral Reasoning

Bases assumptions on organismic model; development of moral reasoning is prompted by the need to resolve conflict and an underlying sense of justice.

Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning

Preconventional Level: Moral reasoning is governed by anticipated rewards or punishments, rather than internalized standards or values (obedience: only need to satisfy own desires, considering intentions: being able to see things as the other person would)


Conventional Level: Moral reasoning is guided by the standards of one's community, in the form of laws and social conventions, which have been internalized (good boy/nice girl: third person perspective that allows adolescents to see themselves as others do, law and order: evaluating actions by community standards)


Postconventional Level: Moral reasoning is guided by self-derived principles, which enable individuals to perceive the standards of their communities as relative, in light of human principles (social contract: realizing that rules are not right in and of themselves, but because they protect people, universal principles: seeing past mutual agreements shared by members of society to values the arguments reflect)

Justice and Forgiveness

Justice is a consideration of competing claims among individuals which weighs them and makes a decision in favor of one or the other. Forgiveness is a decision to release a person from a claim that justice would honor.

Critiques of Kohlberg

People think at different stages in different situations, some individuals do not distinguish moral issues versus conventions, children are socialized with both obedience and concern for others which can be contradictory, and some cultures stress harmony, common good, and cooperation more than others

Social Cognitive Theory

Internalizing Standards: Rewards and punishment regulate behavior, but adolescents learn to internalize models of behavior and standards of a group


Considering Intentions: Adolescents learn to consider intentions as well as actions


Questioning Values: Adolescents learn to be more relativistic in their thinking and challenge value systems


Acting Morally: Adolescents may need incentives to act morally and may model people who are important, nurturing, or similar to them


Moral Virtues: Adolescents act in more pro-social ways if others show gratitude

Social Domain Theory

A theory derived from the organsmic model that says each of us engages in qualitatively different types of social interactions throughout the day, and the social understanding we construct from these differs as well, forming separate domains of social knowledge. Shares many common features with Kohlberg, such as assuming that individuals actively construct ways of understanding their world, recognizing the contribution of cognitive development to moral understanding, and stressing importance of peer interaction to moral development. Social domain differs from Kohlberg in distinguishing moral understanding and social convention as distinct domains of social understanding rather than viewing these as developmental progression.

Moral Domain

A form of social understanding concerned with welfare, justice, and rights; such as whether someone has been hurt or a person's rights have been infringed upon. Part of social domain theory

Social Conventional Domain

A form of social understanding concerned with the rules and traditions governing social interactions within a group; such as table manners or forms of greeting. Part of Social domain theory

Personal Domain

A form of social understanding concerned with activities involving personal choice and prerogative; such as the music one listens to or the friends one has. Part of social domain theory

Gilligan's Ethic of Care Theory

A description of morality that stresses care for others as well as fairness. Bears many similarities to Kohlberg, but interviewed females and found them to think of morality more personally and in terms of their responsibilities to others. Males speak of morality in terms of individual rights. Males tend to view themselves as separate from others, while females tend to view themselves in terms of relationships with others.

3 Levels of Ethic of Care Theory

Caring For Self (Survival): Primary concern is what's best for the self, actions are guided by self interest and preservation. Preoccupation with one's own needs reflects feelings of helplessness and powerlessness


Caring For Others (Goodness): Center on the care of others. Females reason at this level when they internalize social conventions and equate morality with conventional feminine goodness. Drawback is that women care more for others than themselves at this stage.


Caring For Self & Others (Truth): When females reformulate their definition of care to include themselves as well as others. Females can not rely on what others think, they must exercise their own honest judgement.

Kohlberg vs. Gilligan

Kohlberg assumes that every individual follows his sequence of paths in to adulthood because the sequence reflects developments in cognitive maturity that have a biological component. Gilligan does not think her sequence is developmentally necessary for young women, but it is a response to the crisis of adolescence.

Freud: Morality & The Superego

Moral behavior resides in the superego, which emerges as child identifies with same-sex parent and resolves the Oedipus complex. Child internalizes the values and behaviors of the parent, which form the superego and serves as the basis for the internalized set of standards for behavior.

Critiques of Gilligan

Males and females are more alike than she thinks, dilemmas studied by Gilligan which approximate real life situations are more likely to prompt a care response, moral reasoning is more related to gender role orientation rather than just gender

Critiques of Freud

Assumptions concerning basis for gender differences in moral behavior do not have empirical support, research shows that males do not have stronger superegos and that adolescents are not preoccupied with sex like Freud says

Piaget and Moral Reasoning

All development emerges from action, morality is also a developmental process. Young children start out by believing the intrinsic truth of rules of the game, while older children understand that rules can be changed if it does not change the nature of the game.

Piaget's Stages of Moral Development

External Morality: Ages 4-7; regard rules as fixed and absolute, strong respect for rules, comply strictly with rules and base judgements about moral issues on consequences, rather than intentions.


Autonomous Morality: Ages 7-10; view is more relativistic, understand that it is permissible to change rules, rules can be violated to help others, judgement of moral issues is based on intentions as well as consequences

Fowler's Six Stages of Faith Development

Stage 1: Intuitive Protective Faith; early childhood; children grasp religious concepts as intuitive and personal based on their own experiences on narratives of good and evil


Stage 2: Mythic Literal Faith; middle childhood; children appropriate religious beliefs of their community, but concepts are interpreted literally


Stage 3: Synthetic Conventional Faith; early adolescence; integrate previously unrelated narratives in to a system of beliefs, faith is largely conformist and unexamined


Stage 4: Individuative Reflective Faith; emerging adulthood; take responsibility for their beliefs and examine them in relation to other life commitments


Stage 5: Conjunctive Faith; middle adulthood; open to tensions that result from conflicting beliefs, recognize that their beliefs are a part of many other beliefs that are relative and incomplete


Stage 6: Universalizing Faith; middle/late adulthood; experience being one with God, differences in beliefs are no longer seen as important

Religious Identity

An awareness of belonging to a religious group

Alienation

Indifference where devotion or attachment formerly existed; estrangement; hostility, sadness, and indifference are symptoms

Runaways

Characteristics of adolescents who run away from home are low self-esteem, depression, poor interpersonal skills, insecurity, anxiety, and impulsivity. Some adolescents may run away from a bad home situation or to find something better for themselves. Adolescents who do not return home may face drug problems, violence, and lack a sense of self

Maltreatment

Instances of harm to children or adolescents that are non accidental and avoidable; can be due to either neglect or abuse. Older adolescents are less likely to be maltreated than younger adolescents, and girls are more likely than boys. Parents may engage in maltreatment through physical abuse, sexual abuse, or not providing physical, educational, or emotional needs. Maltreating parents are often similar to non-maltreating parents, but respond differently to stress. They often see the world as a hostile place and can be very defensive

Parentified

A reversal in the parent-child relationship in which the burden of caring for the parent's needs is assumed by the adolescent

Externalized Problems

Behaviors that directly harm others; risky sexual practices, substance abuse, dangerous driving, and fighting.

Undercontrolled

Adolescents who have difficulty inhibiting and controlling their behavior, frequently resulting in externalizing problems

Internalizing Problems

Behaviors that are harmful to the adolescent who engages in them, such as anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts

Overcontrolled

Adolescents who are anxious and inhibited, frequently resulting in internalizing problems

Life-Course Persistent Antisocial Behavior

Problem behavior that originates in childhood and persists into adulthood; leads to poor impulse control, negative attitude, inability to adapt to change, difficult temperament

Adolescence-Limited Antisocial Behavior

Problem behavior that originates in adolescence and drops out in early adulthood; delinquent behavior becomes a way of exercising autonomy over parents and affiliating with peers because the behaviors make them feel more adult.

Juvenile Delinquency

Illegal actions committed by a minor

Index Offenses

Actions that are criminal at any age; such as homicide and burglary

Status Offenses

Actions that are illegal when engaged in by minors but legal for adults; such as truancy and drinking alcohol; more likely to be committed by younger adolescents

Gender and Ethnic Differences in Delinquency

Females less likely to engage in delinquent activity than males, minority youth more likely to be arrested than European Americans

Gangs

In previous generations, gangs were mostly unarmed males of the same ethnicity whose primary goal was to defend their neighborhood. Now, gangs have goals of organized crime with sophisticated weapons. People join gangs for a sense of membership and community

Depression

An affective disorder that may take a number of forms, all of which are characterized by a disturbance of mood. Treatments for depression include psychotherapy and/or antidepressants

Suicide

Third leading cause of death among adolescents; males are more likely to complete suicide than females, but females attempt suicide twice as often as males. Males are more likely to hang themselves or use a gun, females are more likely to ingest harmful substances

Bulimia

An eating disorder characterized by bingeing (excessive or compulsive eating), then purging (ridding the body of food by vomiting); more common in females

Anorexia

An eating disorder characterized by severely limiting the intake of food; more common in females

Drugs and Adolescents

Drugs most frequently used by adolescents are alcohol and cigarettes. Only 1 in 10 adolescents experiments with any drugs other than marijuana. Adolescents may try drugs because they feel more adult when they use them, advertisements make them look glamorous, and many adolescents experience peer pressure.

Drug Dependency

Physical dependence on a substance, such that one develops a tolerance and experiences withdrawal when use is discontinued

Alcohol

A drug that functions as a central nervous system depressant; typically the first drug tried by adolescents; 65% try it before high school. Depresses CNS, so adolescents become more talkative, feel more confident, and feel more at ease socially. As BAC rises, thinking becomes disorganized and reactions become slower.

Cigarettes

Pose one of the most serious health risks of all drugs to adolescents; half of all adolescents will have tried cigarettes at some point in high school & by senior year, 14% smoke on a regular basis. Nicotine is the active ingredient, and is a depressant and stimulant, causing smokers to feel more alert and more relaxed after a cigarette.

Marijuana

A mild hallucinogen from the plant Cannabis Sativa; the primary psychoactive substance is THC. 38% of adolescents will have tried marijuana by senior year. Creates feelings of peacefulness and relaxation while also giving a heightened awareness of one's surroundings and an increased significance of things. Can distort memory and perception, slow reaction time, and impair motor coordination.Physical side affects include increased heart rate, reddening of the eyes, and dry mouth.

Drug Use: Age, Ethnicity, & Gender

Use of all 3 substances increases with age; African American adolescents significantly less likely to drink and smoke than European Americans or Hispanics; European Americans most likely to smoke; no ethnic differences with marijuana; girls less likely to smoke or use marijuana than boys, but just as likely to drink

Gateway Hypothesis

The assumption that drug use progresses through stages in which the use of one type of drug provides a pathway to the use of other drugs

Risk Factors for Drug Use

The conditions present that place adolescents at risk for substance abuse, such as those who are less well adjusted and more impulsive with lower self esteem. Substance abusers are likely to have less nurturing parents, experience less consistent parenting, and have parents who abuse substances themselves

Protective Factors for Drug Use

The conditions that provide adolescents with the resources they need for healthy development, such as having high self-esteem and good social skills, having friends that do not abuse substances, and involvement in religious activities. Parents who are warm and understanding, with whom adolescents feel like they can discuss their problems are less likely to have an adolescent who abuses substances

Collective Efficacy

The willingness of neighbors to intervene in situations that might threaten the well-being of others


Personal Strengths of Adolescents

Easy temperament, positive outlook on life, intelligence, competence, sense of self-efficacy

Stress

The body's response to an event that requires adapting to changes brought about by that event

Coping

Strategies for managing stressful situations that tax personal resources

Problem-Focused Coping

Attempts to reduce stress by changing a stressful situation; primarily offensive; may attempt to look for a solution or a less stressful approach to an issue

Emotion-Focused Coping

Attempts to reduce stress by minimizing its emotional impact; for example, denial or wishful thinking; does not focus on changing the problem

Gender, Ethnicity, & Coping

Females more likely to use emotion focused coping than males, because it functions more effectively for them; cultural expectations also affect stress and coping

Effective Coping Strategies

Appraising the situation (accurate appraisal helps adolescents respond more appropriately), responding to the situation (skills related to assertiveness, communication, and compromise involved), managing emotions

Attributional Error

An overestimation of the importance of dispositional stressors or an underestimation of the importance of situational ones

5 C's

Competence: Viewing one's actions positively in different domains


Confidence: Having an overall sense of self-worth and self-efficacy


Connection: Having positive, mutually rewarding relationships


Character: Respecting one's community's and society's standards and acting with integrity


Caring: Having understanding and compassion for others

Initiative

A readiness to initiate action, characteristic of self motivated individuals

Three conditions tied to growth of initiative

Intrinsic motivation, engagement, temporal arc

Intrinsic Motivation

Motivation derived from the pleasure one experiences in an activity

Engagement

Concentrated attention, necessary for the performance of complex activities

Temporal Arc

The time required for the completion of a project during which skill develops through successive evaluation and adjustment of performance

Structured Voluntary Activities

Activities that are intrinsically motivating and challenging that build skills and foster initiative

Love

Research shows that just one caring relationship in an adolescent's life can make the difference between developing in a health or an unhealthy way