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13 Cards in this Set

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Psychologists has a Ph.D., uses therapy to treat mental illness, trains as a psychologist but specializes in clinical or counseling work, views mental illness as a combination of disease and environmental and personality


M.D., uses primarily medications to treat mental illness, Trains as a doctor and completes additional training in the field of psychiatry, views mental illness as a disease

Independent variable

the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter (independent of anything the participants do)

Dependent variable

The variable that represents the measurable response or behavior of the participants (outcome depends on whether or not the participant exposed to IV)

Correlational methods

Goal is to investigate the relationship among various variables. Correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship that exists between two variables(ranges btw -1.00 and +1.00). Positive(+) correlation= when variables co-vary in the same direction. Negative(-) correlation= when variables co-vary in opposite directions

Ingredients for a "True experiment"

Experimental- subjects who are subjected to independent variable

control-subjects treated like experimental group but not subjected to independent variable

-groups must be determined with random assignment

The process of cell communication

Neurotransmitters- carry messages from one neuron to another, neurons are sensitive/react to different neurotransmitters

-then neurotransmitter released and broken down or reuptake(look back at powerpoint "The physical basis of behavior")

4 lobes of cerebral cortex

Frontal lobe-primary motor cortex(voluntary motor control). Broca's area-production of speech

Prefrontal cortex-judgement, planning, attention. phineas gage. orbitofrontal cortex

Parietal lobe-Primary somatosenory cortex-touch, pain, temperature, body position. other sensory processing- taste, some higher rider visual processing

temporal lobe-Primary auditory cortex-process incoming sounds from ears. Recognition of visual stimuli-objects-familiar people(damage can cause prosopangnosia

occipital lobe-primary visual cortex- interprets sensory information from the brain, connects to the temporal lobe(identify what we see), connects to the parietal lobe(process movement in what we see)

Nervous system

Peripheral- Somatic-controls muscles, controls info regarding sensations(touch, temperature, pain etc)

•Autonomic Nervous System- informationrelated to survival–Regulates cardiovascular system–Regulates endocrine system–Two parts•Sympathetic •Parasympathetic

somatic-•Communication Line for–Voluntary movement –Sensory processing•31 pairs of spinal nerves–Limbs–Torso•12 pairs of cranial nerves–Head–Neck–Some internal organs

autonomic nervous system-•Autonomic Nervous System- informationrelated to survival–Regulates cardiovascular system–Regulates endocrine system–Two parts•Sympathetic: Fight or Flight•Parasympathetic

Subcortial structures


Rodes and cones

cones-¨People can be born with less than 3 typesof specialized cones¡One or none- world in white, grey, and black .Two only- whatwe describe as colorblindness -Can see color but differently than therest of the world

gate control theory

-lots of variation between people in how they experience pain

-depends on

.past experiences


.perception of pain

.feelings of control over pain

.pain experience

ex-athletes used to ice bath

maslows hierarchy

self actualization



safety needs

physiological needs