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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system and contain three major parts - a cell body, dendrites, and an axon
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and carries out the metabolic functions of the neuron
cell body
in a neuron, the branchlike extensions of the cell body that receives signals from other neurons
the slender, tail-like extension of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or cell bodies of other neurons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body
bulbous end of the axon where signals move from the axon of one neuron to the dendrites or cell bodies of another
axon terminal
specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that holds neurons together, remove waste products such as dead neurons, and perform other manufacturing, nourishing, and cleanup tasks
glial cells
the junction where the axon terminal of sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft
the white, fatty coating wrapped around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster
myelin sheath
a neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning new information, causes the skeletal muscles to contract, and keeps the heart from beating too rapidly
a neurotransmitter that plays a role in learning, attention, movement, and reinforcement; associated with Parkingson's disease and schizophrenia
a neurotransmitter affecting eating, alertness, and sleep
a neurotransmitter that affects the metabolism of glucose and causes nutrient energy stored in muscles to be released during strenuous exercise
a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and appetite
primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
chemicals produced naturally by the brain that reduces pain and the stress of vigorous exercise and positively affect mood
part of the nervous system with the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system
the nerves connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
peripheral nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that controls skeletal muscles and interacts with the external environment
somatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the body's internal environment (organs, glands, blood vessels)
autonomic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for action and mobilizes energy sources (fight or flight response)
sympathetic nervous system
part of the autonomic nervous system that conserves body's energy and returns the body to its normal, quiet state after an emergency
parasympathetic nervous system
a link between the spinal cord and the brain that contains structures that regulate physiological functions (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure)
the structure that begins at the point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles functions critical to physical survival; includes medulla, the pons, and the reticular formation
part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, and swallowing
a structure in the brainstem that plays a crucial role in arousal and attention; screens sensory messages entering the brain
reticular formation
structure that connects the halves of the cerebellem
the brain structure that helps the body execute smooth, skiklled movements and regulates muscle tone and posture
area that contains structures liking the physiological functions of the hindbrain to the cognitive functions of the forebrain
structure in the midbrain that controls unconscious motor movements
substantia nigra
the largest part of the brain, where cognitive functions as well as many of the motor functions of the brain are carried out
structure, located above the brainstem, that acts as a relay station for information flowing into or out of the forebrain
a small but influential brain structure that regulates hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, internal body temperature, other body functions and a wide variety of emotional behaviors