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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Simple stimulation of a sense organ
The organization identification in interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation
Five senses
Vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell.
Sensors in body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded Neural signal sent to the CNS
The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity
Weber's law
Sensation involves ________, while perception involves ____________.
Stimulation, interpretation
Part of the occipital lobe contains the primary visual cortex
Area V1
Feature binding depends on __________.
Attentional processes
Even as aspects of sensory signals change, perception remains constant
Perceptual constancy
Subregion in the temporal lobe
Gestalt perceptual grouping rules
Molecular depth cues
Difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provide information about depth
Binocular disparity
How high or low a sound is based on changes in physical frequency
A sounds intensity
Listeners experience of the sound quality or resonance
The _______ funnels soundwaves into the auditory canal to vibrates the ___________ at a rate that corresponds to the sounds frequency
Pinna, eardrum
Portion of the temporal lobe that contains the primary auditory cortex
Area A1
Registers High-frequency is determined by cochlea at different locations along the basilar membrane
place code
Registers low frequencies via firing rate of action potentials entering the auditory nerve
Temporal code
Signals arriving from pain receptors in the body can be stopped, or gated, but interneurons in the spinal cord via feedback from two directions
Gate-control theory
initial-sharp pai
Longer-lasting after initial pains
Why do smells have immediate and powerful effects?
The involvement in the smell of brain centers for EMOTION AND MEMORIES
A person's subjective experience of the world in the mind
How things seem to be conscious person
The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body
Mind/body problem
4 basic properties of consciousness
Intentionality (directed toward an object)

Unity (resistance to division)

Selectivity (some not others/cocktail party phenomenon)

Transience (tendency to change)
"The stream of consciousness partly reflects the limited capacity of the conscious mind "
William James
Our focus of attention keeps changing
Consciousness that occurs when the mind and put sensations and May output behavior
Minimal consciousness
The level of awareness in which you know you are able to report your mental state
Full consciousness
Level consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object
In active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories the person deepest desires in the person's inner struggle to control these forces (Freud)
Dynamic unconscious
Mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious( Freud)
The ___________ unconscious is at work when subliminal in unconscious processes influence and behavior
Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement and a high-level brain activity
REM sleep
Stage 1 sleep
Theta waves
Stage 2 sleep
Sleep spindles/K complexes
Stage 3/ stage 4
Delta waves
Awake stage
Beta waves
Drowsy, relaxed
Alpha waves
Also known as sleepwalking
5 main characteristics of consciousness (that distinguish it from a waking state)
Emotion is intense
Thought is logical
uncritical acceptance
difficulty remembering dream
"Dreams Harbor unwanted thoughts "
Psychological theory of dreams
Dreams are produced in the mind tends to make sense of random your activity that occurs in the brain during sleep
Activation-synthesis model
Chemicals that influence consciousness or behavior by altering the brains chemicals Message system
Psychoactive drugs
fMRI Studies of the dreaming brain reveal
Increased sensitivity to emotions

activations associated with visual activity

prevention of movement
Ability to store and retrieve information overtime
Three functions of memory
The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into enduring memory
Process of maintaining information in memory over time
Process of bringing to mind information that has been previously included and stored
Holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
Sensory memory
Type of sensory memory: A fast decaying store a visual information
Iconic memory
Type of sensory memory: fast decaying store of auditory information
Echoic memory (sound)
Holds nonsense or information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
Short-term memory
Type of short-term: the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
Type of short term: involves combining small piece of information into larger clusters or chunks
Type of short-term: active maintenance of information in short-term storage
Working memory
Hold information for days hours weeks and years
Long-term memory
inability to transfer new information from the short-term into the long term
Anterograde amnesia
Inability to retrieve information that was acquired for a particular date usually the date of injury or operation
Retrograde amnesia
Which part of the brain does amnesia affect
When transduction is occurred
A network of associated facts and concepts that make up or general knowledge of the world
Semantic memory
Collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
Episodic memory
Like watching a show
Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
Memory misattribution

Suspect/witness= Miss identification
Psychologist known for classical conditioning
When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response
Classical conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
Dog salivation
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
conditioned stimulus no longer involved… Sound to saliva
CS to elicit CR is weak when given a break, but still present
Spontaneous recovery
Distinguishes the two similar but different stimuli
Who did the "little Albert" experiment
Watson and Rayner
What did Watson conclude about Little Albert experiment
Fears could be learned
What has a roll with classical conditioning
What did Watson seek to demonstrate about behaviorism through the little Albert experiment
Even sophisticated behaviors such as emotional reactions are subject to classical conditioning
Part of the brain involved in classical conditioning of FEAR
Type of learning in which the consequences of in organisms behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future
Operant conditioning
Famous psychologist that used operant conditioning
BF Skinner
Skinners approach to the study of learning focused on________ and __________.
Reinforcement(increased likelihood behavior that led to it)

punishment(decrease the likelihood of behavior that led to it)
Learning the results from the reinforcement of successive steps to final desired behavior
Something is learned, but is not manifested posted as a behavioral change until sometime in the future
Latent learning
Who took this cognitive approach to operant learning (also known as latent learning)

Rats/mice in maze
Mental representation of the physical features of the environment
Cognitive map
_________(Nerotransmitter) Is more closely linked with the expectation of reward in the reward itself.
Term meaning Learning takes place by watching the actions of others
Observational learning
Bobo doll experiment(name of person)
Results for bobo doll experiment?
The observational learning seen in Ventura studies has implications for social learning and cultural transmission of behaviors, norms, and values.
Behavior learned initially by observing others perform and serve as a model
Diffusion chain
What happens in the brain when Learning by observing
Mirror neurons in the frontal and parietal lobes fire when one watches someone else perform a task
Which mechanism does not help form the basis of observational learning
A) attention
B) perception
C) punishment
D) memory
Your own research indicates observational learning is closely tied to brain areas that are involved in:
A) memory
B) vision
C) action
D) emotion
Helping you study
Learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process in the process of information acquisition
Implicit learning

( explicit learning has become implicit overtime)
Gradually getting used to stimulus
Responding to implicit instructions result in decreased brain activation in which of the part of the brain
A) hippocampus
B) parietal cortex
C) prefrontal cortex
D) occipital region
Occipital region