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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are some functions of emotions?
- help people adapt to their environment
What are the basic emotions?
What is a basic emotion?
An emotion felt by people worldwide and consists of a subjective feeling, a physiological change/response and an overt behaviour.
What is a complex/self-conscious emotion?
Responses to meeting or failing to meet expectations or standards.
When do basic emotions emerge?
Birth-9 months
When do complex/self-conscious emotions emerge?
18-24 months
What are the complex emotions?
What are some cultural differences in emotional expression?
Differences in extent to which emotions can be expressed (some are encouraged/discouraged). Also differences in events that trigger emotions (usually complex).

Cultures also differ in the extent to which they encourage children to express themselves.
How can we benefit from recognizing/using others' emotions?
Adaptive to recognize others' emotions and change our behaviour as a consequence.
By 4-6 months we can distinguish the facial expressions of others.

-social referencing
-display rules
What is "social referencing"
Infants in an unfamiliar or ambiguous environment often look at their mother or father as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation.
What are "display rules?"
Culturally specific standards for appropriate expressions of emotions in a particular setting or with certain people.

Ex: sadness at a funeral
How does experience help children understand emotions?
-hearing people talk about their emotions
-positive/rewarding relationships reveal full ranges of emotions
When do we begin to regulate emotions?
~ 4-6 months, using simple strategies
What are the 3 components of Mary Rothbart's Theory?
negative affect
effortful control.

These dimensions of temperament are evident in infancy, continue
into childhood, and are related to dimensions of personality that are found in adolescence and adulthood
What is surgency/extraversion?
The extent to which a child is generally happy, active, vocal, and regularly seeks interesting stimulation.
What is negative affect?
The extent to which a child is angry, fearful, frustrated, shy, and not easily soothed.
What is effortful control?
The extent to which a child can focus attention, is not readily distracted, and can inhibit responses.
How was Rothbart's Theory tested?
Examined the structure of temperament in infants growing up in the United States and in Russia.

600 parents of 3- to 12-month-olds; the sample in Russia included about 200 parents of 3- to 2-month-olds. Both samples
included roughly the same number male and female babies and
most were Caucasian.

Showed the basic dimensions of temperament are evident in U.S. infants and Russian infants.
What was Thomas/Chess' approach?
Temperament and Development

-studied 9 behaviours
-found 3 children: easy, slow-to-warm-up, difficult

also predicted later psychological adjustment, and found 2/3 of preschoolers with difficult temperaments had developed behavioral problems by the time they entered school, and less than 1/5 easy babies

temperament as an important influence on development and also related to children;s tendency to help others in distress