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42 Cards in this Set

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Situations that tax the physical and or psychological capabilities of the individual.

Situations are likely to be labeled as stressors when the demands test or exceed the resources of the person

Stress refers to the cognitive, affective, and behavioral response pattern that occurs in response to situational demands

3 definitions

Laura's Types Of Appraisals

Primary (What is the nature of the stressor?). Secondary (What kinds of resources do I have to cope with this stressor?). Reappraisal (Reassessment of situation given additional information and or secondary appraisal)

Three types. Primary, secondary, reappraisal

Situational Factors Affecting Stress & Which Is Related To The Safety Signal Hypothesis

Predictability (event uncertainty), Ambiguity, Novelty, Imminence, Controllability


Personal Factors Affecting Stress

Motives, Goals, & Values. Beliefs (Personal control beliefs. Existential beliefs). Personality factors: Hardiness. Coping skills

Beliefs: The three Cs Of Hardiness, Personal Control, Existential Beliefs

Challenge, Commitment, Control

Stages Of Coping

Anticipatory, Impact, Post Impact

There are three

Coping Strategies & When Each Is Most Useful

Problem-Focussed Coping, Emotion-Focussed Coping, Seeking Social Support

Three types

Characteristics Of Good Coping Skills

1. Complex repertoire (good variety) that are 2. Flexibly applied and 3. Readily generalizations to different situations

Three characteristics

Smith's Mediational Model Of Stress

Situation demands/resources (stressor) -> Cognitive Appraisal (Of demands, Of resources, Of consequences, Of meaning) <-> Physiological Responses -> Coping & Task Behaviors

Know the four types of appraisals

Stress Interventions

Situation Demands/Resources -> Cognitive Appraisal (Of demands, Of resources, Of consequences, Of meaning of consequences <-> Physiological Responses -> Coping and Task Behaviors.

Cognitive Appraisal <- INTERVENTIONS Cognitive Restructuring, Self-Instructional Training -> Integrated Coping Response

Physiological Responses <- INTERVENTIONS Training In Relaxation Skills -> Integrated Coping Response

Mediational Model Of Stress

Yerkes-Dodson Law/Inverted U Hypothesis

Poor performance related to low emotional arousal (underaroused). Maximum performance related to maximum performance (optimally aroused). Poor performance related to high emotional arousal (overaroused)

Underground, Optimally Aroused, Overaroused

Somatic Relaxation: Basic elements of progressive relaxation (PR)

Muscle relaxation, exhalation, trigger word

There are three

Somatic Relaxation: Breathing-Based Techniques

Complete breath. Sighing on exhalation. Rhythmic Breathing (In 4, hold 4, out 4. In 2, out 4)

Somatic Relaxation: Stimulus Hierarchy

Series of scenes having a common theme that a person imagines during desensitization

Time Dimension: A series of scenes leading up to a feared event in time.

Physical Distance Dimension: A person afraid of heights might try to imagine being in progressively higher places

Seriousness Dimension: A series of scenes composed of progressively more unpleasant encounters with another person

Definition. Examples of time dimension, physical dimension, and seriousness dimension

Systematic Desensitization

A coping response (relaxation) that is incompatible with fear and anger.

Involves training yourself in progressive muscle relaxation and then using it to exercise control in imagined anxiety or anger arousing situations.

Definition and what it involves

Cognitive Relaxation: Elements Of The Relaxation Response By Herbert Benson

Repetition of a word, phrase, mantra, prayer, or muscular activity. Passive disregard towards thoughts that will arise. Helpful to do in a quiet place and in a comfortable position

Three key elements: Repetition, passive disregard, situation

Antigenic Training






Beck's Cognitive Distortions

All-or-nothing thinking. Overgeneralization. Mental filter. Disqualifying the positive. Jumping to conclusions (mind reading, fortune teller error). Magnification and minimization. Emotional reasoning. Should statements. Labeling and mislabeling. Personalization. Depressive attribution pattern. Negative cognitive triad

Know 5

Ellis's ABC Model Of Emotion And The Role Of Irrational Beliefs In Producing Negative Emotions

A - Activating event. C - Emotional Consequences (Emotional reaction, presumably caused by irrational thinking). B - Beliefs (Usually irrational if dealing with negative emotions)

Key elements


It is awful, terrible, and catastrophic when things are not the way that I demand that they be

Ellis' Core Irrational Belief

Cognitive Restructuring

Attempt to modify distorted/irrational thinking.

D - Dispute (Counter what you told yourself. What is a more productive way to think?)


Add a D to Ellis's ABC model

Self-Instructional Training

Come up with statements to tell yourself as you cope with stressful events. Often combined with the state of coping model.

Anticipatory Stage: This will be frustrating, just plan on how I can keep my cool and deal with it without blowing up. No negative self-statements, just think and plan rationally.

Impact Stage: One step at a time, I can handle this, just relax and think clearly. Keep cool, no need to lose my temper, relax.

Post-Impact Stage: Those Damon ideas, they're the problem, when I control them I control my anger. Go back over what I did, what worked and what can be done better next time? Way to go! It's getting better every time. I'm controlling the anger instead of it controlling me.

Self-statements of the Anticipatory Stage, Impact Stage, Post-Impact Stage

Elements Of The Integrated Coping Response

["I'm in control... so... relax."] Adaptive Self-Statement... (Inhalation) -> "So" -> ...Relax (Exhalation) [It's not that]

Integrated Coping Response model


The psychological, emotional, and sometimes physical withdrawal from an activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction.

3 Situational Factors Correlated With Burnout

High or conflicting demands, Low social support, Low autonomy, Low rewards, Low demands

1 high, 4 low

Personal Factors Correlated With Burnout

Extreme dedication to work or profession, High trait anxiety, Perfectionist or unrealistic goals, Type A personality, Too flexible or rigid in coping skills, Non-discriminating locus of control, Feeling isolated and lonely

Work, anxiety, goals, personality, coping, locus, feeling

4 Suggestions For Overcoming Burnout

Become aware of the problem, Take responsibility for changing the situation and/or yourself, Discriminate the changeable from the unchangeable, Develop new strategies and coping skills, Examine coping patterns, Set goals and clarify priorities, Acknowledge vulnerabilities, Compartmentalize work and non-work, Schedule decompression time / time off, Maintain physical fitness, Build social support, Challenge and change maladaptive attitudes and beliefs, Use burn out to promote personal growth, Learn mental coping skills, Choose to have fun

Aware, Responsibility, Change, Coping, Patterns, Goals, Vulnerabilities, Work, Schedule, Fitness, Social, Attitudes, Growth, Coping, Fun

4 Elements Of Effective Attention

Voluntary focus on relevant cues, Maintaining focus over time, Shifting the focus of attention when necessary, Screening out irrelevant stimuli

Cues, Focus, Shifting, Stimuli

Two Dimensions Of Attention



Four Types Of Attention Combinations

Broad-internal (take something specific and focus on it), Narrow-internal (assessment attention), Broad-external (analyzing), Narrow-external (perform)

Broad, Narrow, Internal, External and examples of each

Relationship Between Arousal And Attention

Because of excessive arousal, and individual's performance progressively deteriorates and the person can't regain control of it. High arousal, Attention shifts towards the person's dominant attention style, attention goes internal and narrow (often towards negative thoughts and feelings)

Excessive arousal and performance. List the consequences.

Four Different Internal Distracters

Thoughts about the past, Thoughts about the future, Pressure and choking under pressure, Over-Analyzing (paralysis through analysis), Fatigue, Lack Of Motivation

Past, Future, Choking, Analyzing, Fatigue, Motivation

Three Different External Distracters

Visual distracters, Auditory distracters, Gamesmanship

Visual, Auditory, Games

Six Suggestions For Improving Attention

Use simulations, Use cue or trigger words, Employ non-judgmental thinking, Establish routines and performance plans , Practice eye control, Use self-monitoring, Over-learn behaviors, Turn failure into success (in your mind), Practice shifting attention, Increasing focusing and refocusing skills, Use technology (EEG, Biofeedback, etc), Use mental skills (goals, imagery, etc)

Attention And Pain: Dissociative And Associative Strategies

Pain control strategies: Dissociative strategies (Direct attention away from painful stimuli), Associative Strategies (Direct attention towards painful stimuli, but in a detached, non-emotional way)

Away from, Towards

Measuring Sleep

EEG (brain waves): Awake (Alpha activity mild, Beta activity low), Stage 1 Sleep (That a activity moderately), Stage 2 Sleep (Sleep spindle mild, Key complex high), Stage 3 Sleep (Delta activity high), Stage 4 Sleep (Delta activity high), REM Sleep (Theta activity mild, Beta activity low)

EOG (eye movement):

EMG (muscle tone):


Brain Wave Patterns And The Aspects Of Wakefulness Or Stage Of Sleep Each Of These Relates To




Sleep Spindle

K Complex


Multiple Sleep Latency Test

Give people the opportunity to sleep every 2 hours. They have 20 minutes to fall asleep. As soon as you fall asleep, or at the 20 minute mark, the test ends.

Well rested people:

Opponent Process Theory Of Sleep



Sleep Debt (Homeostatic Sleep Drive)


Describe how it relates to how awake or alert we are during the day

Circadian Rhythms (Clock Dependent Alerting)

Experience a push of wakefulness twice per day: In the morning when you wake up (8AM) and around 12 hours later (8PM). The second push is stronger because you have acquired a day's worth of sleep debt.

2:00 Deepest Sleep

4:30 Lowest body temperature

6:45 Sharpest rise in blood pressure

7:30 Melatonin secretion stops

8:30 Bowel movement likely

9:00 Highest testosterone secretion

10:00 High alertness

14:30 Best coordination

15:30 Fastest reaction time

17:00 Greatest cardiovascular efficiency and muscle strength

18:30 Highest blood pressure

19:00 Highest body temperature

21:00 Melatonin secretion starts

22:30 Bowel movement suppressed

How it relates to how tired or alert we are during the day