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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

inborn biological characteristics

sex

relate to reproduction, chromosomes or organs

sex

socially constructed

gender

psychological characteristics and social categories

gender

what is "doing gender"

how you express your gender to others

what is hostile sexism

negative emotion directed specifically at women

what is benevolent sexism

subjectively positive attitudes towards women in traditional roles

what do feminisms believe

that women and men should be socially, economically, and legally equal

what is the goal of liberal feminism

gender equality

what is the goal of cultural feminism

to emphasize positive qualities in women

what is the goal of radical feminism

sexism permeates society

the goal of women of color feminism

to emphasize human dimensions

what is the similarities perspective

men/women are generally SIMILAR in intellect and social skills

what is the differences perspective

men/women DIFFERENT in intellect and social skills

androcentrism

idea that men are default

data in form of text/talk

qualitative research

qualitative and quantitative methods

mixed methods approach

5 stages of the research process

1. theoretical model
2. question formulation
3. research design
4. data analysis
5. data interpretation

how can bias enter the research process

1. forming hypothesis based on unrelated research
2. right questions are asked
3. sex bias
4. experimenter and observer effects

what can we do to prevent bias

1. not conduct single gender research


2. have male and female researchers


3. have gender fairness in interpretation

what is feminist research

observing people in natural environment

define stereotypes

beliefs and assumptions about womens characteristics

define prejudice

emotional reactions and attitudes towards women

define discrimination

biased behavior towards women

define gender bias

includes stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination

when did women history first exist

1960s

what did aristole feel about women

didnt believe they could grow/think rationally. believed they were always envious

what did rousseau feel about women

function of women was to please/be useful to men

what did Mr and Mrs Mill feel about women

argued for equal rights against each other

explain the three gender biases in religion/mythology

1. adam and eve; women made secondary, women are evil


2. pandora's box; men wronged the gods for being w/ women and they sent them a box full of horrible things


3. women are virtuous; virgin mary

gender biases in religion today

negative views of women in china, islam, hinduism

who tends to want more personal space

men

who tends to make more eye contact

women

tentativeness differences

when women are around men they say "i think, maybe"


where men say "it is this way"

interruptions differences

women are like to interrupt another women, but they are not likely to interrupt a man

non-parallel terms

"lady doctor"


"lady cop"


where for a guy you say "doctor" "cop"



negative terms

spinster vs bachelor

infantilizing terms

girls or gals when when men are not boys

the eight gender biases in the media

1. women invisible in commercials, producing movies


2. quiet; women dont narrate movies/shows


3. women seldom shown working outside home


4. women shown doing housework


5. women/men represented differently; women aren't "serious"


6. womens body differently used from mens body; in cartoons big boobs tiny waist


7. WOC are underrepesented and usually shown in biased way


8. low SES women usually shown in a biased way; maury, springer

explicit

things you would say if you are AWARE someone else is listening


sensoring youself

implicit

things you say about people when you THINK no one is listening


more true to how you feel

implicit associations test

survey


stereotype-consistent pairings vs stereotype-inconsistent pairings

what are the attitudes towards women's competence

womens competence is likely to be devalued when:


1. when males are doing the evaluating


2. when participants have traditional attitudes


3. when little info is available about persons qualifications

what is a double bind

damned if you do, damned if you dont


if you're girly = you're not taken seriously


if you're masculine = you're pushy

what is ambivalent sexism

hostile sexism


women should be subservient

what is benevolent sexism

subtle


emphasizes niceness and purity

gender discrimination in other cultures

generally relatively minor in liberal countries but still exists

heterosexism

assumes that everyone should be in heterosexual relationship

who is most likely to hold heterosexist beliefs

men, those with traditional gender role beliefs, politically/religiously conservative

what is the social cognitive approach

stereotypes are belief systems that guide the way we process info

what is categorization

putting people in different social groups/boxes

the normative male

making biased judgements about females and males


assumptions in vague situations ("chris" or "pat")



stereotype threat

when a group of women are told they're bad at math, their tests scores go lower because in their heads they think they're bad

internalization of stereotypes

develop a stereotype in your head and you never forget it

what kind of "ducts" do females have

mullerian

what kind of "ducts" do males have

wolffian

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

GENETIC FEMALE XX


females get male androgens


appear masculine AT BIRTH

androgen insensitivity syndrome

GENETIC MALE XY
body does not respond to androgens
external genitalia looks females
discovered when "girl' does not menstrate
klinefelter syndrome


GENETIC MALE XXY


extra x chromo


some appear male and later develop female characterisitics

what are the cultural implications of intersex

our culture assumes a gender binary; want to be able to label a child girl or boy

freud's psychoanalytic theory

childhood experiences shaped adult personality

what is the erogenous zone

an area of the body that dominates the libido

phallic stage

oedipal complex


electra complex (penis envy)

five criticisms of psychoanalytic theory

1. not scientifically proven


2. subjects were patients


3. lack of inclusion of societal influences


4. phallocentric (saying men matter more)


5. perhaps not developementally accurate

parental investment

women invest more (precious egg vs cheap sperm idea)



what are the two ideas for sexual selection

1. competition for mating rights


2. preferences for who to mate with

what is the evolutionary pscyhology theory

that humans complex psychological mechanisms are the result of evolutionary selection

criticisms of evolutionary psychology

biological/genetic explanations


perpetuates status quo


men = aggressive/dominant


women = subordinate

social structural theory

focuses on social structure, particularly divison of labor

social learning theory

1. children are rewarded for gender appropriate actions


2. kids watch and imitate the behavior from people from their own gender cateogry

cognitive developmental theory

does not account for all aspects of gender development (social learning)

what is a gender schema

"what are women like"


a general idea

gender identity

gender schemas lead to gender identity

what two things are important in children

their behaviors and thoughts

gender development in infancy

mostly similar to each other

sex preference in US culture

boy is preferred first born

baby x study

1. lab setting, non-parents, 3 mo infant


2. observed toy play and behavior based on if they thought infant was boy or girl


3. gender IS important for interaction w/ children

gender typing activities

discourage "gender innappropriate activities" for boys. okay for girl to play with truck but not okay for boy to play with dolls

gender typing conversations

fear/sadness vs anger


suppression of emotions in men

gender typing attitudes about aggression

inconsistent research


imitation/modeling

gender typing attitudes about independence

inconsistent research


girls have more supervision

gender typing individual difference

ethnicity


social class


tradiational or non traditional gender beliefs

gender segregation in peers

association with same gender children around age 2-3

who do teachers provide more positive feedback and attention to

boys

gender typing in the media

frequency of exposure


gender stereotypes


males more visible


males/females perform diff activties

step 1 in menstrual cycle

1. in response to low estrogen level, the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland

step 2 in MC

2. pituitary gland responds by releasing follicle stimulating hormone, which stimulates follicles to become more mature and signals ovaries to increase production of estrogen and progesterone

step 3 in MC

3. the increase level of estrogen stimulates the development of the endometrium; signals pituitary gland to stop producing fsh

step 4 in MC

4. pituitary gland stops producing fsh and starts making lutenizing hormones

step 5 in MC

5. lutenizing hormone usually suppresses growth in all folicles except one; one egg typically reaches maturity

step 6 in MC

6. follicle then releases the ovum, egg, on approprimately the 14th day of the menstrual cycle, called ovulation

step 7 in MC

7. empty follcile matures into round structure called corpous luteum, which secretes progresterone and estrogen levels. both these hormones rise after ovulation

step 8 in MC

8. increase level of progesterone inhibits the production of additional luteinizing hormone. as a result, corpous luteum decomposes

step 9 in MC

9. production of both progesterone and estrogen falls rapidly with such low levels of hormones, the thicker endometrium can no longer be maintained so it sloughs off and passes out vagina

step 10 in MC

10. low levels of estrogen signals the hypothalamus, causing a new cycle to begin

puberty

period where a young girl experiences physical and hormonal changes that lead to sexual maturity

adolescence

involves psychological changes that occur during puberty

menarche

demarcation of puberty for girls; beginning of menstruation

follicle stimulating hormone

acts on follicles in ovaries


initiates production of estrogen and progesterone

luteinizing hormone

necessary for the development of an ovum (egg)

estrogen

primarily produced by ovaries


stimulates development of endometrium

progesterone

primarily produced by ovaries


regulates the system

dysmenorrhea

painful cramps in abdomen

prostaglandins

released by body just before menstruation and can causes severe cramps

treatments

drug, exercise, heating pad, adequate sleep

define symptoms of PMS

cyclical set of symptoms that occur BEFORE menstruation


not all women have the same symptoms



positive reactions to menstrual cycle

"part of being a women"


means they are not pregnant so thats positive for some people

invisibility of menstruation

rarely hear mensturation on tv

self esteem in adolescence

a measure of how much you like and value yourself

cultural identity in adolescnece

ideas and customs associated with social grouping such as country of origin

three different career aspiration ideas in adolescence

1. male/female have equivalent aspirations about entering prestigious career


2. females more likely than males to choose non traditional careers for their gender


3. females more likely than males to report being effective in gathering info about their future career

friendship intimacy seen more in..

females

size of gender differences usually depend on what three social settings

1. usually largest when other people are present


2. largest when gender is prominent, but other shared roles are minimized


3. largest when behavior requires specific gender related skills

talkativeness

female stereotype


studies show men/women talk the same amount

language style

men = more obscentiy


women = hesitant/uncertain

content of language

same between men/women

who tend to smile more

females

who is more accurate at decoding situations

females

low power individuals have to do what more than high power individuals

smile to win over people


attentive to high power individuals for possibility of moving up

altruism

providing unselfish help to others in need WITHOUT EXPECTING reward

heroism

risking ones life for others welfare


men = going to war


women = donating organs

nurturance

kind of helping in which someone gives care to another person who is younger or less competent

three parts of empathy

1. understand emotion of another


2. experience same emotion


3. concern about anothers well being

who is more empathic

when tested physiologically, male/female equally empathetic

kohlberg theory

men more likely to have sophisticated moral development (more logical)

gilligan theory

thinks men/women have different MORAL approaches, one not better than the other

differences perspective

gilligan supports this


some evidence contradicts this

similarities perspective

most research/our textbook supports this

philosopher thucydides believes women..

more likely to endorse social justice issues

GIRLS/BOYS same gender friendships

gender segregation around age 3


girls have smaller # of friends than boys


girls more likely to have friends that don't know each other


girls more likely to self disclose

WOMEN/MEN same gender friendships

female = more physical contact, slightly more self disclosure, value talking about feelings more




men = often want to self disclose but don't do it with same gender

how men and women help their friends

men = more likely to strategize and/or blame friend for the problem




women = more helpful, more likely to talk it out

who demonstrates more physical aggression

males

what is relational aggression

can harm another through intentionally manipulating interpersonal relationships

who does relational aggression more often

females

what are the 3 myths of non aggressive females

1. if women see themselves as weak, some of them may believe that they cannot defend themselves against mens aggression


2. some people associate competitiveness with aggression, so women may sometimes be denied access to professions that value competition


3. aggression may be seen as normal for males, so some men may choose not to inhibit their aggressive tendencies

transformational leadership

encourage followers to transform themselves


-inspire, gain trust, encourage


FEMALES DO THIS MOST OFTEN

transactional leadership

reward followers when they meet expectations


-if you do x, i will give you y


-WOMEN MORE HEAVY ON REWARDS THAN MEN

women are more persuaded by women who use what type of language

assertive

men more persuaded by women who use what type of language

tentative

who does competent non verbal style of persuasion work best on

men

women are more successful if they are...

modest

men are more successful if they are...

boastful