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80 Cards in this Set

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Puberty
The time betwn the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development. usually lasts three to five years.
Menarche
A girl's first menstrual period, signalling that she has begun ovulation. Pregnancy is possible, but ovulation is often irregular for years after menarche
Spermarche
a boy's first ejaculation of sperm. erictions can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. It occurs during sleep or by stimulation
hormone
organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function. Various hormones influence thoughts, urges, emotions, and behavior
pituitary
a gland in the brean that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands
adrenal glands
2 glands, located above the kidneys. they produce hormones including the stress hormone
HPA axis
the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a route followed by many kinds of hormones to trigger the changes of puberty and to regulate stress, growth, sleep, appetite, sexual excitement, and various other bodily changes
gonads
paired sex glands that produce hormones nad gametes
estradiol
a sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females produce more than males
testosterone
a sex hormone. the best known of the androgens secreted in far greater amounts in males than females
Secular trend
refers to the earlier and greater growth of children due to improved nutrition and medical care over the lasxt two centries
growth spurt
sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty. Weight usually precedes height, and the limbs precede the torso
Primary Sex characteristics
the parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction. Eg: vagina, uterus, overies, testicles, penis
secondary sex characteristics
physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man's beard and a woman's breasts
STI
Sexually transmitted infection. a disease spread by sexual contact, including syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, HIV
child sexual abuse
any erotic activity that arouses and adult and exciteds, shames, or confuses a child, whether or not the victim protests and wherther or not genital contact is involved.
Generational forgetting
the idea that each new generation fogets what the previous generation leaned about harmful drugs
Adolescent egocentrism
adolescents focus on themselves to the exclusion of others. ex: their thoughts, feelings, experiences are more wonderful or awful that anyone elses
invincibility fable
cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or speeding
imaginary audience
the other people who, to the adolescent's egocentric belief, are watching, and taking note of, his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior. this belief makes many teens very self conscious
formal operational thought
in piaget's theory, the fourth and final stage of congnitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas
hypothetical thought
Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities taht may not reflect reality
deductive reasoning
reasoning from a gerneral statement, premis, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics
inductive reasoning
reasoing from one or more specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion; may be less congnititvely advanced than deduction (bottom - up reasoning)
dual-process model
the notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli
intuitive thought
thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation. Past experiences cltural assumptions, and sudden impulses are the precursors of intuitive thought
analytic thought
thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequesnces, possibilities and facts. Depends on logic and rationality
sunk cost fallacy
the belief taht if time or moeny has already been invested in something, then more time or moeny should be invested. Because of this fallacy, people spend money trying to fix a "lemon" of a car or sending more troops to fight for a losing cause
secondary education
literally the period after primary education and before tertiary education. It usually occurs from about 12-18.
high-stakes test
an evaluation that is critical in determining succes s or failure. if a single test determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted, that is a high-stakes test
identity
consistent definition of one's self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations
identity versus diffusion
Erikson- 5th stage
'who am i"
confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt
identity achievement
erikson
attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans
identity diffusion
a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is
foreclosure
erikson's term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents' or society's roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis
moratorium
a way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. going to college is most common example
gender identity
a person's acceptance of the roles and hehaviour that society associates with the biolgical categories of male and female
crowd
large group of teens who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends
deviancy training
destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms
comorbity
a situation in which two or more unrelated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time
clinical depression
feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last 2 wks or more
rumination
repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences; can contribute to depression
suicidal ideation
thinking about suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or congnitive overtones
parasuicide
any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death
cluster suicides
several suicides commited by members of a group w/in a brief period of time
incidence
how often a particular behavior or circumstance occurs
prevalence
how widespread w/in a population a particular behavior or circumstance is
life-course persistent offender
a person whose criminal activity typically begins in early adolescence and continues throughout life; a career criminal
adolescence-limited offender
a person whose crimal activity stops by 21
senescence
process of aging , whereby the body becomes less strong and effieciant
homeostasis
the adjustment of all the body's systems to keep physiological functions in a stae of equilibrium.
organ reserve
the capacity of organs to allow the body to compe with stress, via extra, unused functioning ability
body mass index
teh ratio of a person's weight in kilograms divided by his or her height in meters squared
set point
a particular body weight that an indevidual's homeostatic processes strive to maintain
edgework
occupations of recreational activities that involve a degree of risk or danger. The prospect of living on the edge makes edgework compellig to some
extreme sports
have apparent risk of injury or death and that are attractive and thrilling as a result
drug abuse
the ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the users biological or psychological well-being
drug addiction
a condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug in the individuals system produces a drive- physiological, psychological, or both - to ingest more of the drug
delay discounting
the tendency to undervalue, or downright ignore, future consequences and rewards in favor of more immediate gratification
social norms approach
a method of reducing risky behavior that uses emerging adults desire to follow social norms by making them aware, thru the use of surveys, of the prevalence of various behaviors w/in their preer group
postformal thought
a proposed adult stage of cognitive development, following piaget's four stages, that goes beyond adolescent thinking by being more practical, more flexible, and more dialectical
subjective thought
thinking that is strongly influenced by personal qualities of the individual thinker, such as past experiences, cultural assumptions, and goals for the future
objective thought
thinking that is not influenced by the thinkers personal qualities, but involves facts and numbers that are universally considered true and valid
stereotype threat
the possibility taht one's appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person's oversimplified prejudiced attitudes
the threat of bias
the possibility that ones if students fear that others expect them to do poorly in school because of their ethnicity or gender, they may nto identify with academic achievement and do worse on exams than they otherwise would have
dialectical thought
the most advaced cognitive process, characterized by the ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis simulataneousl and thus to arrive at a synthesis. Makes possible and ongoing awareness of pros and cons, advantages and disadvantages, possibiliteies and limitations
thesis
a proposition or statement of belief taht opposes the thesis; the second stage of the process of dialectical thinking
antithesis
a proposition or statement of belief that opposes the thesis; the second stage of the process of dialectical thinking
synthesis
a new idea that integrates teh thesis and its antithesis, thus representing a new and more comprehensive level of truth,; the third stage of the process of dialectical thinking
morality of care
in gilligans view, moral principles that reflect the tendency of females to be reluctant to judge right and wrong in absolute terms because they are socialized to be nurturant, compassionate, and nonjudgmental
Defining Issues test
DIT- a series of questions developed by james rest and designed to assess respondents level of moral development by having them rank possible solutions to moral dilemmas
intimacy vs isolation
6t stage of erikson
seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment. without such commitment, they risk profound aloneness and isolation
gateways to attraction
the various qualities, such as appearances and proximity, that are prerequisites for the formation of close friendships and intimate relationships
exclusion criteria
a person's reasons for omitting certain people from consideration as close friends or romantic partners. exclusioni criteria vary from one individual to another, but they are strong filters
homogamy
defined by developmentalists as marriage between individuals who tend to be similar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interest, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background,and local origin
heterogamy
defined by developmentalists as marriage btwn individuals who tend to be dissimilar withrespect to such variables as attitudes, interests, goals, socoionomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin
social homogamy
the similarity of a couples leisure intersest and role preferences
social exchange theory
the view that social behavior is a process of exchange aimed at maximizing the benefits one receives and minimizing the costs one pays
common couple violence
a form of abuse in which one or both parners of a coupld engage in outbursts of verbal and physical attack
intimate terrorism
spouse abuse in which, the husband uses violence of accelerating intensity to isolate, degrade, and punish the wife