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### 52 Cards in this Set

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 What is the equation to determine the chance that we will always be right? (1-a)^n What is the equation to determine that chance of having 1/more Type 1 Errors? 1-(1-a)^n ________ alpha is BIGGER than our _______ alpha Experiment-wise; Test-wise What is the formula for the Bonferronni Correction? Atest = Aexperiment/n How does the Bonferroni Correction do? makes the test-wise alpha smaller What might make 2 participants score differently on DV if they are in the SAME condition? Random effects; chance What might make 2 participants score differently on DV id they are in DIFFERENT conditions? (3) 1. Effects of Treatment2. Random Effects; chance3. Effects of Confounds If the null hypothesis is true, how likely is it that a difference this big (or bigger) would occur? the p value If the p value is really SMALL (p<.05), then you would __________ the null hypothesis? REJECT If the p value is BIGGER (p>.05), then you would _________ the null hypothesis? FAIL TO REJECT The P value must be smaller than the Alpha level for us to say that it is _______________ statistically significant What does the Alpha level mean? the chance of making a Type 1 Error What is a Type 1 Error? Wrongly Rejecting the Null Hypothesis What is a Type 2 Error? Accepting a False Null Hypothesis What are 4 things that affect the chance of a Type 2 Error? 1. effect size2. a-level3. sample size4. error variance What is the symbol for a Type 2 Error? β Why don't we know β? (2) Because we can only ESTIMATE:1. Error Variance2. TRUE effect size What is Power? likelihood that we will CORRECTLY reject the null when the null is false What is the equation to find the Power? Power = 1 - β Why would you do a Power Analysis? to determine how many participants we will need to detect an effect of a particular size What are 5 ways that you can increase Power? 1. by increasing alpha2. by increasing # of participants3. by DECREASING error variance4. by increasing experimental effect5. by making β smaller What does a T-test do? tests the difference between 2 means People in the 2 independent samples T-test _______ have unique connections between them. DO NOT People in the Matched or Paired Samples T-tests _______ have unique connections between them. DO What are the drawbacks to T-tests? 1. can only test 2 means at a time2. requires repeated use in more complex designs The chance of making one or more Type 1 Errors ____________ with the number of T-tests INCREASES Formula for:2 tests, always right (1-a) x (1-a) Formula for:wrong at least once 1 - chance we will never be wrong Formula for:3 tests, always right (1-a)^3 What is the advantage of the Bonferroni Correction? protects against Expriments-wise Type 1 Error inflation What is the drawback of the Bonferroni Correction? decreases a-test, thereby INCREASING likelihood of Type 2 Error The likelihood of Type 2 Error _________ with the number of tests INCREASES What is ANOVA? an inferential statistic What does ANOVA allow us to do? can make a reasonable "inference", meaning that we can make a decision with a degree on confidence For Between-subjects Designs, ANOVA compares ______________ to ______________ Systematic Variance to Error Variance What is the F statistic? MSsystematic / MSerror What is MSsystematic? Mean Sqared Devation - Systematic What does MSsystematic do? estimates the average amount of variance associated with manipulation of the IV. What is MSerror? Mean Squared Deviation -- Error What does MSerror do? estimates the average amount of variance due to error or chance The bigger F gets, the ___________ that MSsystematic gets in comparison to MSerror. BIGGER When F gets bigger, we get to _________ the null hypothesis reject What are Total Degrees of Freedom? # of scores that would vary freely until we would know for certain exactly what the remaining scores would have to be in order to get the calculated value f the Grand Mean What is the equation for the Degrees of Freedom? df = n-1 How can you calculate the Degrees of Freedom of individual scores from within groups? dfwg = # of participants - # in groups Degrees of Freedom represent the # of __________ for a SS to INCREASE opportunities How would you find the Mean Square Within Groups? MSwg = SSwg / DFwg If Fobs > Fcrit then we would _________ the null REJECT If Fobs < Fcrit, then we would __________ the null RETAIN What are the 3 F tests conducted for a 2-way Between Subject Design? 1. for main effect of Factor A2. for main effect of Factor B3. for main effect of Factor A with Factor B How many test should you do?For 3 means?For 4 means? 3 tests (1&2, 1&3, 2&3)6 tests (1&2, 1&3, 1&4, 2&3, 2&4, 2&4) What do Post hoc Tests control for? Type 1 Error