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52 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
What is the equation to determine the chance that we will always be right? 
(1a)^n 

What is the equation to determine that chance of having 1/more Type 1 Errors? 
1(1a)^n 

________ alpha is BIGGER than our _______ alpha 
Experimentwise; Testwise 

What is the formula for the Bonferronni Correction? 
Atest = Aexperiment/n 

How does the Bonferroni Correction do? 
makes the testwise alpha smaller 

What might make 2 participants score differently on DV if they are in the SAME condition? 
Random effects; chance 

What might make 2 participants score differently on DV id they are in DIFFERENT conditions? (3) 
1. Effects of Treatment 2. Random Effects; chance 3. Effects of Confounds 

If the null hypothesis is true, how likely is it that a difference this big (or bigger) would occur? 
the p value 

If the p value is really SMALL (p<.05), then you would __________ the null hypothesis? 
REJECT 

If the p value is BIGGER (p>.05), then you would _________ the null hypothesis? 
FAIL TO REJECT 

The P value must be smaller than the Alpha level for us to say that it is _______________ 
statistically significant 

What does the Alpha level mean? 
the chance of making a Type 1 Error 

What is a Type 1 Error? 
Wrongly Rejecting the Null Hypothesis 

What is a Type 2 Error? 
Accepting a False Null Hypothesis 

What are 4 things that affect the chance of a Type 2 Error? 
1. effect size 2. alevel 3. sample size 4. error variance 

What is the symbol for a Type 2 Error? 
β 

Why don't we know β? (2) 
Because we can only ESTIMATE: 1. Error Variance 2. TRUE effect size 

What is Power? 
likelihood that we will CORRECTLY reject the null when the null is false 

What is the equation to find the Power? 
Power = 1  β 

Why would you do a Power Analysis? 
to determine how many participants we will need to detect an effect of a particular size 

What are 5 ways that you can increase Power? 
1. by increasing alpha 2. by increasing # of participants 3. by DECREASING error variance 4. by increasing experimental effect 5. by making β smaller 

What does a Ttest do? 
tests the difference between 2 means 

People in the 2 independent samples Ttest _______ have unique connections between them. 
DO NOT 

People in the Matched or Paired Samples Ttests _______ have unique connections between them. 
DO 

What are the drawbacks to Ttests? 
1. can only test 2 means at a time 2. requires repeated use in more complex designs 

The chance of making one or more Type 1 Errors ____________ with the number of Ttests 
INCREASES 

Formula for: 2 tests, always right 
(1a) x (1a) 

Formula for: wrong at least once 
1  chance we will never be wrong 

Formula for: 3 tests, always right 
(1a)^3 

What is the advantage of the Bonferroni Correction? 
protects against Exprimentswise Type 1 Error inflation 

What is the drawback of the Bonferroni Correction? 
decreases atest, thereby INCREASING likelihood of Type 2 Error 

The likelihood of Type 2 Error _________ with the number of tests 
INCREASES 

What is ANOVA? 
an inferential statistic 

What does ANOVA allow us to do? 
can make a reasonable "inference", meaning that we can make a decision with a degree on confidence 

For Betweensubjects Designs, ANOVA compares ______________ to ______________ 
Systematic Variance to Error Variance 

What is the F statistic? 
MSsystematic / MSerror 

What is MSsystematic? 
Mean Sqared Devation  Systematic 

What does MSsystematic do? 
estimates the average amount of variance associated with manipulation of the IV. 

What is MSerror? 
Mean Squared Deviation  Error 

What does MSerror do? 
estimates the average amount of variance due to error or chance 

The bigger F gets, the ___________ that MSsystematic gets in comparison to MSerror. 
BIGGER 

When F gets bigger, we get to _________ the null hypothesis 
reject 

What are Total Degrees of Freedom? 
# of scores that would vary freely until we would know for certain exactly what the remaining scores would have to be in order to get the calculated value f the Grand Mean 

What is the equation for the Degrees of Freedom? 
df = n1 

How can you calculate the Degrees of Freedom of individual scores from within groups? 
dfwg = # of participants  # in groups 

Degrees of Freedom represent the # of __________ for a SS to INCREASE 
opportunities 

How would you find the Mean Square Within Groups? 
MSwg = SSwg / DFwg 

If Fobs > Fcrit then we would _________ the null 
REJECT 

If Fobs < Fcrit, then we would __________ the null 
RETAIN 

What are the 3 F tests conducted for a 2way Between Subject Design? 
1. for main effect of Factor A 2. for main effect of Factor B 3. for main effect of Factor A with Factor B 

How many test should you do? For 3 means? For 4 means? 
3 tests (1&2, 1&3, 2&3) 6 tests (1&2, 1&3, 1&4, 2&3, 2&4, 2&4) 

What do Post hoc Tests control for? 
Type 1 Error 