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52 Cards in this Set

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What is the equation to determine the chance that we will always be right?

(1-a)^n

What is the equation to determine that chance of having 1/more Type 1 Errors?

1-(1-a)^n

________ alpha is BIGGER than our _______ alpha

Experiment-wise; Test-wise

What is the formula for the Bonferronni Correction?

Atest = Aexperiment/n

How does the Bonferroni Correction do?

makes the test-wise alpha smaller

What might make 2 participants score differently on DV if they are in the SAME condition?

Random effects; chance

What might make 2 participants score differently on DV id they are in DIFFERENT conditions? (3)

1. Effects of Treatment


2. Random Effects; chance


3. Effects of Confounds

If the null hypothesis is true, how likely is it that a difference this big (or bigger) would occur?

the p value

If the p value is really SMALL (p<.05), then you would __________ the null hypothesis?

REJECT

If the p value is BIGGER (p>.05), then you would _________ the null hypothesis?

FAIL TO REJECT

The P value must be smaller than the Alpha level for us to say that it is _______________

statistically significant

What does the Alpha level mean?

the chance of making a Type 1 Error

What is a Type 1 Error?

Wrongly Rejecting the Null Hypothesis

What is a Type 2 Error?

Accepting a False Null Hypothesis

What are 4 things that affect the chance of a Type 2 Error?

1. effect size


2. a-level


3. sample size


4. error variance

What is the symbol for a Type 2 Error?

β

Why don't we know β? (2)

Because we can only ESTIMATE:


1. Error Variance


2. TRUE effect size

What is Power?

likelihood that we will CORRECTLY reject the null when the null is false

What is the equation to find the Power?

Power = 1 - β

Why would you do a Power Analysis?

to determine how many participants we will need to detect an effect of a particular size

What are 5 ways that you can increase Power?

1. by increasing alpha


2. by increasing # of participants


3. by DECREASING error variance


4. by increasing experimental effect


5. by making β smaller

What does a T-test do?

tests the difference between 2 means

People in the 2 independent samples T-test _______ have unique connections between them.

DO NOT

People in the Matched or Paired Samples T-tests _______ have unique connections between them.

DO

What are the drawbacks to T-tests?

1. can only test 2 means at a time


2. requires repeated use in more complex designs

The chance of making one or more Type 1 Errors ____________ with the number of T-tests

INCREASES

Formula for:


2 tests, always right

(1-a) x (1-a)

Formula for:


wrong at least once

1 - chance we will never be wrong

Formula for:


3 tests, always right

(1-a)^3

What is the advantage of the Bonferroni Correction?

protects against Expriments-wise Type 1 Error inflation

What is the drawback of the Bonferroni Correction?

decreases a-test, thereby INCREASING likelihood of Type 2 Error

The likelihood of Type 2 Error _________ with the number of tests

INCREASES

What is ANOVA?

an inferential statistic

What does ANOVA allow us to do?

can make a reasonable "inference", meaning that we can make a decision with a degree on confidence

For Between-subjects Designs, ANOVA compares ______________ to ______________

Systematic Variance to Error Variance

What is the F statistic?

MSsystematic / MSerror

What is MSsystematic?

Mean Sqared Devation - Systematic

What does MSsystematic do?

estimates the average amount of variance associated with manipulation of the IV.

What is MSerror?

Mean Squared Deviation -- Error

What does MSerror do?

estimates the average amount of variance due to error or chance

The bigger F gets, the ___________ that MSsystematic gets in comparison to MSerror.

BIGGER

When F gets bigger, we get to _________ the null hypothesis

reject

What are Total Degrees of Freedom?

# of scores that would vary freely until we would know for certain exactly what the remaining scores would have to be in order to get the calculated value f the Grand Mean

What is the equation for the Degrees of Freedom?

df = n-1

How can you calculate the Degrees of Freedom of individual scores from within groups?

dfwg = # of participants - # in groups

Degrees of Freedom represent the # of __________ for a SS to INCREASE

opportunities

How would you find the Mean Square Within Groups?

MSwg = SSwg / DFwg

If Fobs > Fcrit then we would _________ the null

REJECT

If Fobs < Fcrit, then we would __________ the null

RETAIN

What are the 3 F tests conducted for a 2-way Between Subject Design?

1. for main effect of Factor A


2. for main effect of Factor B


3. for main effect of Factor A with Factor B

How many test should you do?




For 3 means?




For 4 means?

3 tests (1&2, 1&3, 2&3)






6 tests (1&2, 1&3, 1&4, 2&3, 2&4, 2&4)

What do Post hoc Tests control for?

Type 1 Error