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81 Cards in this Set

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Agonists

Are drugs that bind to the receptors and trigger a response. Mimics a naturally occurring substance

Antagonists

Are drugs that block or suppresses agonist-mediated responses.

Label the parts + function of the brain

Frontal lobe (at front) responsible for planning + decision making


Parietal lobe (at the top) responsible for processing sensory information


Occipital lobe (at the back) responsible for visual processing


Temporal lobe (at the bottom) responsible for memory.

Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)

Produces pleasurable effect by activating dopaminergic pathways

Patient HM had what what kind of amnesia?

Profound. So both retrograde and anterograde amnesia. He damaged his hippocampus in his temporal lobe. He was still able to learn new skills.

Retrograde amnesia:

Remembering things clearly further back in time

Anterograde amnesia:

Can't remember things after the accident

Medial temporal lobe damage with produce:

anterograde amnesia

One of the best ways to remember something is to use elaboration. What is this?

Creating a rich structure that links knowledge. Making up a weird story or sequence to help you remember something. Eg- shopping list.



One of the less effective ways of remembering something is to use maintenance rehearsal. What is this?



Repeating something over and over.



Cones in eye:

colour, daytime, high resolution

Rods in eye:

Black + white, night time, low resolution

If I am blind in only one eye, this is called what?

Monocular blindness

If the left half of my left eye and right half of my right eye are blind, what is this called?

Bitemporal blindness



If both left sides of both eyes are blind, what is this called?

Left homonymous hemianopia

Describe the process of falling asleep:

After 60 minutes, EEG becomes less synchronised and decreases in amplitude. About every 1.5 hours your body fluctuates between slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement

How many cycles of slow wave sleep does a person go through each night?

5 cycles

Synaptic excitation & inhibition:

Excitation: The next neutron will fire so message keeps getting passed on


Inhibition: The next neutron doesn't fire so the message stops.

Recency effect vs. Primacy effect:

Recency: Remembering recently heard words easily


Primacy: Remembering words read/heard from a long time ago.

Tell me as much as you can about REM sleep:

High correlation with dreaming, eye movements in REM sleep do not always correspond to dream content

Episodic vs. Procedural memory:

Episodic: times and places, early sleep helps you remember these


Procedural: Part of your long term memory which is skills and how you do things. Late sleep improves procedural memory.

3 steps to how you process information:

1) Sensory organs absorb energy


2) Energy is transduced into a neural signal


3) Neural signal sent throughout the brain where further processing takes place.

For the Mishkin & Ungerleider study, what 2 things did they investigate and what were their findings?

1) Landmark discrimination- animals with temporal lobe removed couldn't remember what object the reward was under, however

Define sensation vs. perception:

Sensation: the act of receiving sensory


information


Perception: giving sensation a meaning

What is the purpose of the cornea on the outside of an eye?

The cornea is transparent and focusses the image on the retina.

The middle of the eye is called the choroid, what is its function?

To supply nutrients and keep waste away

Patient DB suffers from Blindsight. He can't see anything in the left side of either eye. However if you hold an object in DB's left visual field, he will be able to point to it. How is this possible?

An alternative pathway is when sight goes straight from the eye to v5 and then continues down into the where stream. This is why patient DB can point to where something is. It's bypassing V1 which picks up lines from visual features and bypasses LGN which picks up dots in vision.

Why can patient DB (who suffers from blindsight) pick up the object in his blind visual field when the object is shaken around?

The visual system is skipping to V5 in patient DB, as V5 is responsible for detecting visual motion, he can sense something out there.

What do ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus cells respond to?

Spots of light

V1 cells respond to what?

Lines of different orientations

What is Achromatopsia:

Absence of colour vision (can only see in black and white), damage to V4.

What is Akinetopsia:

Absence of motion vision, damage to V5

Apperceptive agnosia is what?

Failure of object recognition due to visual


impairment, poor matching and copying skills. Peppery mask.

What is dorsal simultagnosia?

Failure of object recognition due to spatial


impairment. Can't recognise more than one


object at once

What is ventral simultagnosia?

Failure of object recognition due to a complex perceptual impairment. Can recognise objects but not more than one at a time.

What is associative agnosia?

Failure of object recognition due to a higher order complex perceptual impairment. Accurate drawing/copying skills, however it is slavish. Also have a hard time telling the difference between possible and impossible figures.

What is the top-down theory:

Seeing two things in one image. Eg- duck and rabbit image.

Effects of damage to the left parietal lobe:

R:ight/ left confused


A:graphia- difficulty writing


A:calculia- difficulty carrying over numbers


D:yslexia


D:difficulty in drawing details

Effects of damage to the right parietal lobe:

C:ontralateral neglect- not being able to


see/detect the left visual field.


D:ifficulty in drawing (overall shape)


D:ifficulty recognising unfamiliar views of an object. Eg- birds eye vs. side on.

Why is information post-perceptual?

Burning house anecdote. A patient will not be able to see flames in the left window but will still want to live in the house without the flames. This shows that the information is entering the brain.

What is habituation?

Repeated exposure to a stimuli through


experience means you don't react to it. Eg- getting used to hearing a loud noise.

What is the unconditioned stimulus and the unconditioned response?

Unconditioned stimulus: is the thing you use to pair up with another stimulus because it elicits a response. Eg- food


Unconditioned response: what happens as a result from the unconditioned stimulus. You don't have to train it, it just happens naturally.


Eg- salivation.

What is the neutral stimulus?

The thing you're trying to train the animal to


respond to by pairing it up with the stimulus that does produce a response. Eg- A light or tone.

What is conditioned stimulus & conditioned


response?

Conditioned stimulus: The thing you have now trained the animal to respond to. Eg- light.


Conditioned response: The way the animal


responds to the newly conditioned stimulus. Eg- salivation.

What is compensatory-reaction hypothesis?

When the opposite effect is produced to what is about to come. Eg- insulin injections.


Siegal tested the tolerance of rats for overdoses and found rats that weren't in their usual


environment didn't prepare for the drug and died.

What is stimulus generalisation?

Seeing something similar to the thing that scares you and eliciting the same response. You


generalise things things that look similar.

What is systematic desensitization?

Exposing the person to a stimulus which produces a less anxious response than full anxiety. Eg- showing a person a picture of a spider before exposing them to a real spider.

What is second order conditioning?

Once you train a stimulus to become an effective conditioned stimulus for a certain conditioned response, then that stimulus can be used to


condition other stimuli.

Forward conditioning is the most effect method to condition something. How does it work?

CS comes immediately before (and overlaps) with US. Eg- click before (and during) the air puff. The click is the conditioned stimulus and the air puff is the unconditioned stimulus.

Fixed ratio:

set number of things

Variable-ratio:

Number fluctuates, number changes around the mean

Fixed-interval schedule:

Set amount of time before getting a reward



Variable-interval schedule:

Variating amount of time

What is latent learning?

Learning from experience when there appears no obvious reinforcement orpunishment for the specific behaviour. Eg- rat learning its way through a maze.

What is Positive Punishment:

Works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future. Eg- A child being punished

What is Negative Punishment:

A certain desired stimulus is removed after a particular undesired behavior is exhibited. Eg- removing a child from their favourite class after doing something naughty.

What is positive reinforcement:

Works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired


behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future.

What is negative reinforcement?

When a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence.


-Avoiding a bad consequence. Eg- get 2 biscuits after eating vegetables.

What is successive approximation?

Shaping- rewarding responses to increase behaviour

What is successive approximation?

Shaping- rewarding responses to increase behaviour

What is adventitious reinforcement:

Accidentally rewarding something

What is successive approximation?

Shaping- rewarding responses to increase behaviour

What is adventitious reinforcement:

Accidentally rewarding something

What is vicarious reinforcement?

Observational learning

What is the purpose of the cornea?

Focuses an image on the retina

What is the purpose of the cornea?

Focuses an image on the retina

What is the purpose of the choroid?

Keeps waste away and supplies nutrients (also called vascular tunic)

What is the purpose of the cornea?

Focuses an image on the retina

What is the purpose of the choroid?

Keeps waste away and supplies nutrients (also called vascular tunic)

What is the purpose of the lens in the eye?

Focusing

What is the purpose of the cornea?

Focuses an image on the retina

What is the purpose of the choroid?

Keeps waste away and supplies nutrients (also called vascular tunic)

What is the purpose of the lens in the eye?

Focusing

V1 cells detect what?

Lines

What is the purpose of the cornea?

Focuses an image on the retina

What is the purpose of the choroid?

Keeps waste away and supplies nutrients (also called vascular tunic)

What is the purpose of the lens in the eye?

Focusing

V1 cells detect what?

Lines

V5 cells are responsible for what?

Detecting motion

4 key processes required for observational learning?

Attention


Retention


Production


Motivation

Wagner et al study was:

String of 8 digits presented