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20 Cards in this Set

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Donder's reaction time experiment

Reaction time: the time taken to respond to a stimulus


Choice reaction time: respond+ make a decision


Simple reaction time : respond time

Structuralism

Associated researcher: Wilhelm wundt


Overall experience is determined by combining basic elements of experience (sensations)

Analytic introspection

Associated researcher: Wilhelm Wundt


Participants described their experience in response to stimulus in terms of elementary mental elements (very subjective)

Savings

Quantitative measure used by Hermann Ebbinghaus to determine the amount of time saved between remembering a list of nonsense syllables the first and the second time. Longer delays result in smaller savings. These savings follow a curve linked to delay times called the saving curve.

William James's contribution

- first psychology textbook (based on personal observations relating to attention, perception, memory, reasoning consciousness, thinking


- observation that paying attention to one thing means withdrawing attention from other things.

Behaviorism

Founder: John b. Watson


- rejects introspection as a valid method of studying psychology


- shifts study from the mind to behavior and how to control it

Classical conditioning

How pairing one stimulus with another, previously neutral stimulus causes changes in the response to the neutral stimulus.



Eg: watson's little Albert experiment


Pavlov's salivating dogs

Operant conditioning

Associated researcher: B. F. Skinner


Behavior can be strengthened by the presentation of reinforcers or weakened by the presentation of punishments.

Cognitive maps

Associated researcher: Edward Chace Tolman


Precursor to the cognitive psychologists. Studied behavior of rats in a maps to infer mental processes (formation of cognitive maps)

Noam Chomsky's Contribution

Critic of skinner's verbal behavior theory. According to him language is not learned through reinforcement, but rather reflects the construction of the mind. Concept of universal grammar.


Eg. Children say things like "I hate you mommy" and apply faulty grammar

Cognitive revolution

Shift from understanding humans through the study of behavior and stimulus-response relationships to an approach focusing on the study of the operations of the mind.

Information- processing approach

Inspired by the rise of computers, this approach focuses on senquences of mental operations involved in cognition. Mental processes are viewed as occuring in stages opens the way to flow diagrams of mental processes.

Dichotic listening

Associated researcher: Colin Cherry


Two different messages are presented to the right and the left ear. The participants are told to pay attention to one message (the attended message), while ignoring the other one (unattended message). Participants could hear the sound of the unattended message, but were unable to report its content.

Flow diagram of the mind

Associated researcher: Donald Broadbent

Associated researcher: Donald Broadbent



Behavioral experiments

Scientific approach:


measuring the relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable, while taking into account control and confounding variables and proceding by random assignments to the treatment or the control condition.

Psychobiological research

Focuses on the relationship between mental processes and cerebral events and structures


study methods: post-mortem, abnormal functioning, imaging (normal processing), non-human participants

Case studies

Researching a mental process based on one individual. eg. Phineas gage

Structural models

study models based on the study of mental processes as related to brain structures

Process models

study models based on processes of the mind unrelated to physiology. E.G information processing models

Paradigm

Associated researcher: Thomas Kuhn


A system of ideas that dominate science at a certain time